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Back Pain and Weight Gain: Common Causes and Effective Solutions

Written by Andrew Le, MD

UpdatedFebruary 28, 2024

Back pain and weight gain are two prevalent health issues that affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Back pain affects over 619 million people worldwide. Studies indicate that low back pain is more common in overweight and obese individuals (92.5% and 95.2% respectively) and less prevalent in underweight individuals (83.3%).

In this article, you will learn the correlation between back pain and weight gain, explore how excess weight affects your spine and back muscles, and provide insights into managing your weight to reduce back pain.

🔑 Key Takeaways

  • Excess weight strains the spine and back muscles, disrupting alignment and increasing the risk of pain, degeneration, and herniation.
  • Proper spinal structure and back muscle support are vital for balance, stability, and everyday activities.
  • Weight gain's impact on the spine involves increased pressure, altered alignment, and the potential for disc degeneration and herniation.
  • Belly fat contributes to strain on back joints and the risk of osteoarthritis, impacting spinal health.
  • Due to weight gain, weakened muscles compromise spine stability, posture, and movement patterns.
  • Cardiovascular exercise aids in managing weight's impact on the spine while maintaining core muscles is essential for alignment.
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Understanding the Structure of the Spine and Back Muscles

Knowing how your spine and back muscles work is important for keeping good posture, avoiding injuries, and ensuring a healthy back.

So, what exactly are your spine and back muscles all about?


The spine is the body region between the neck and the gluteal regions, comprising the vertebral column and two compartments of back muscles.

The vertebral column consists of 33 individual bones called vertebrae, all interconnected. These vertebrae have a dual role: protecting the spinal cord from injury and enabling movement.

The spine has several functions, including maintaining posture, allowing movement, and protecting the spinal cord.

💡Did you know?

Your spine has a natural shock-absorbing system. In addition to providing structural support and enabling movement, the spine also contains cerebrospinal fluid. This clear, colorless fluid surrounds the brain and spinal cord as a cushion to protect them from shocks and impacts.

Back Muscles

The back muscles are essential in supporting the spine. There are three groups of back muscles:

  1. Extrinsic (superficial) muscles
  2. Intrinsic (deep) muscles
  3. Core muscles

The deep muscles in the back are robust and span from the sacrum to the base of the skull. These muscles play a role in controlling the movements of the vertebral column and maintaining posture.

The intrinsic muscles stabilize the spine and help with bending, rotating, flexing, and extending the back. They also help control the trunk and neck.

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How Weight Gain Affects the Spine and Back Muscles

Different factors like lifestyle, genetics, and physiological changes can cause weight gain, significantly impacting the spine and the back muscles that support it.

However, excessive weight gain, particularly in the upper body, places undue strain on the back's joints and structures. This prolonged strain leads to wear and tear over time, culminating in discomfort and pain. Individuals possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) face an elevated likelihood of experiencing lower body injuries.

A study conducted on 23,048 respondents found a strong connection between lower back pain and weight gain.

Overweight individuals were 21.8% more likely, and obese individuals were 39.5% more likely to experience lower back problems.

Both overweight and obese individuals had a 44.1% and 52.8% higher likelihood of intervertebral disc disorder (IDD) compared to normal/underweight individuals, suggesting a significant association between obesity and increased weight gain and back pain.

To better understand how weight gain can impact the spine and back muscles, let's explore some key factors. Here are the following:

1. Increased Pressure on the Spine

Weight gain and back pain are closely intertwined, with each additional pound you put on exerting greater pressure on your spine. Significantly impacting your health and ability to function properly.

Imagine your spine as the central pillar that supports your body. An increase in weight is equivalent to adding more weight to the pillar, which makes it harder to maintain balance.

2. Changes in Spinal Alignment

Maintaining a well-aligned spine is crucial for balance, stability, and overall function. Gaining weight, especially around the belly area, can significantly affect the spine's alignment, leading to various issues contributing to back pain and discomfort.

Excessive weight gain can cause lumbar lordosis to increase, leading to a condition called "swayback," where the lower back curves excessively inward.

This misalignment can strain the lumbar region's muscles, ligaments, and discs, causing discomfort and pain. Additionally, excessive weight gain can cause the thoracic spine to flatten or reverse its curve, leading to a loss of thoracic kyphosis.

This alteration can impact the alignment of the upper body, affecting posture and potentially leading to discomfort in the upper back and neck. Changes in cervical alignment can also contribute to neck pain, headaches, and overall postural imbalances, especially if the altered alignment in the lower spine causes compensatory changes in the upper spine.

3. Belly Fat and Strain

While belly fat is often associated with cosmetic concerns, its implications go far beyond appearance.

Excess abdominal fat can significantly impact your spinal health and contribute to the development of back pain. The more your belly protrudes, the greater the strain on the lower back muscles, ligaments, and joints.

This strain can lead to muscle imbalances, as some muscles become overworked while others become weakened due to the changed biomechanics.

The additional load on the back joints, especially in the lumbar region, can lead to discomfort and pain.Excessive strain on the spine's joints due to belly fat can contribute to the development of osteoarthritis.

In the context of the spine, osteoarthritis can affect the facet joints – the small joints that connect the vertebrae – leading to inflammation, pain, and reduced mobility.

4. Joint Inflammation

Excessive weight gain can harm the smaller joints in your spine, known as facet joints. These joints play a crucial role as they connect the bones of your spine, enabling movement while maintaining stability.

When these joints endure excessive stress due to weight gain, they can become inflamed and result in ongoing back pain. This discomfort can sometimes progress into arthritis as the joints become irritated.

Arthritic facet joints can lead to the gradual erosion of cartilage within the joint, making movement more challenging. This can give rise to feelings of discomfort, stiffness, and persistent pain. Notably,arthritis in the facet joints is particularly prevalent among individuals who are overweight or obese and stands as a primary contributor to long-term back pain.

5. Disc Degeneration and Herniation

Excessive weight gain can harm intervertebral discs between vertebrae. This leads to disc degeneration and herniation, causing back pain and sciatica.

Disc degeneration is caused by pressure on the discs, which lose fluid content and become less effective at cushioning the spine. Disc herniation occurs when the outer layer of a disc weakens or tears, increasing the risk of herniation.

This commonly leads to sciatica, which radiates pain down one or both legs.

6. Impact on Muscle Tone

Reduced physical activity can lead to muscle weakening and atrophy, harming our spine. Robust muscles surrounding the spine play a critical role in evenly distributing our body weight, alleviating pressure, and promoting proper posture.

Exercising targeting our core muscles is important to sustain good posture and balance. Weak muscles can result in inefficient movement patterns and stress our spine, resulting in pain and potential injury.

❗ Remember:

If you experience chronic back pain or discomfort due to weight gain, it's advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or physical therapist for personalized guidance and treatment options.

Managing Weight to Reduce Back Pain

Losing weight can help alleviate weight-related back pain and reduce the strain on the spine. Here are some ways to manage weight to reduce back pain:


Cardiovascular exercise and weightlifting can help strengthen the muscles and reduce weight. Low-impact physical activities, such as:

  • Walking
  • Swimming
  • Practicing yoga or Tai Chi

These physical activities can help improve flexibility and strengthen the muscles in the back.

Eat a Healthy Diet

Consuming a nutritious diet can assist in alleviating inflammation, which can play a role in reducing back pain. An anti-inflammatory diet centers around consuming plenty of deeply colored food like:

  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Lean proteins
  • Healthy fats

Maintain Healthy Posture and Movement Habits

Ergonomics-certified physical therapists possess the expertise to guide you in establishing and sustaining proper posture and movement practices, whether at your workplace or within your daily routine.

Adhering to their recommendations can significantly diminish the strain on your back, promoting spinal health and minimizing the risk of back pain.

Here are some tips for maintaining healthy posture and movement habits to reduce the risk of back pain:

  • Sit and Stand Up Straight: Whether at your desk or elsewhere, practice sitting and standing with your back straight. Keep your shoulders relaxed and your feet flat on the floor.
  • Use Ergonomic Furniture: Invest in ergonomic chairs and desks that support good posture. Adjust them to suit your body's natural alignment.
  • Take Regular Breaks: If you have a desk job, make it a habit to take short breaks every hour. Stretch, walk around, and change your sitting position.
  • Lift Properly: When lifting heavy objects, bend your knees and keep the object close to your body. Avoid any twisting motions while lifting.
  • Use Supportive Footwear: Choose shoes with proper arch support and cushioning to promote good posture.
  • Adjust Your Workspace: Arrange your workspace to minimize awkward positions. Your computer monitor should be at eye level, and your keyboard and mouse should be easily accessible.
  • Sleep on a Comfortable Mattress: Ensure your mattress and pillows adequately support your spine. An excessively soft or extremely firm mattress can result in back discomfort.

Get Enough Sleep

Quality sleep reduces stress, alleviating muscle tension and back pain associated with weight gain. Deep sleep promotes muscle recovery, preventing atrophy caused by a sedentary lifestyle.

Sleep also aids pain management by triggering the release of endorphins, natural painkillers. It supports tissue health, maintains spinal disc elasticity, and slows degeneration.

Restorative sleep improves posture and spinal alignment by relaxing muscles, reducing the risk of poor sleeping postures that lead to back pain.

Moreover, proper sleep indirectly supports weight management by regulating appetite hormones, benefiting spine health.

Be Active

Consistent physical activity is crucial for preserving a healthy weight and promoting the well-being of your spine and back.

Physical activity strengthens the core muscles, which are crucial in maintaining spinal alignment and stability. It also helps distribute body weight evenly, reducing the strain on your spine.

Additionally, staying active promotes overall fitness and flexibility, contributing to better spine health and a reduced risk of back pain.

Whether through cardiovascular exercises, strength training, or low-impact activities like yoga, being active is a key component of a holistic approach to managing weight and ensuring the well-being of your spine.

BMI Awareness

Use the BMI to assess whether your weight is within a healthy range.

A BMI falling within the range of 18 to 25 is regarded as normal and indicative of good health, while a BMI of 25 to 30 indicates being overweight and at risk of back problems. A BMI over 30 indicates obesity, which can contribute to back pain and degeneration.

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Explore our weight loss articles that provide valuable statistics. Dive into the data to better understand and empower your weight management journey.


Back pain and weight gain often go hand in hand due to the increased strain excess weight places on the spine. The good news is that there are effective solutions to address this common issue.

Consistent cardiovascular workouts and strength training build stronger muscles and help manage weight effectively.

For personalized guidance, consult a healthcare or fitness professional to create a tailored plan, ensuring a healthier spine and overall well-being in the long run.

FAQs on Weight Gain and Back Pain

Can losing weight help alleviate back pain caused by excess weight?

Losing weight can reduce pressure on the spine, alleviate strain on muscles and joints, and ultimately help alleviate weight-related back pain.

Why is it important to consider BMI when addressing weight-related back pain?

BMI provides insight into whether weight is within a healthy range, helping individuals understand their risk for back problems.

What causes severe abdominal cramping, lower back pain, and weight gain?

Severe abdominal cramping, lower back pain, and weight gain have various causes and require a proper diagnosis from a healthcare professional. Possible causes include hormonal imbalances, gastrointestinal issues, and musculoskeletal problems., or reproductive health concerns.

What are the symptoms of weight gain, back pain, and fatigue?

Weight gain, back pain, and fatigue can be indicative of several health conditions. These symptoms may suggest issues related to metabolism, physical strain, or underlying medical conditions. It's essential to seek medical advice to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.

What are the weight gain and back pain symptoms?

Common symptoms of weight gain and back pain include increased body weight, persistent discomfort or pain in the back region, and potential fatigue. These symptoms can arise from various medical conditions, so it's essential to consult a healthcare provider for a thorough evaluation.

What could be causing weight gain and back pain?

Weight gain and back pain can have multiple underlying causes, such as musculoskeletal issues, hormonal imbalances, or metabolic changes. A comprehensive medical evaluation is essential to identify the specific cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

What should I do if I have unexplained weight gain and lower back pain?

If you are experiencing unexplained weight gain and lower back pain, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional promptly. These symptoms may indicate an underlying medical issue that requires investigation and treatment.

Illustration of a healthcare provider asking questions on a smart phone.
Virtual weight loss solution
A personalized GLP-1 medication program delivered to you via our partner Korb Health
Illustration of a healthcare provider asking questions on a smart phone.
  • Free consultation; program starts at $269/mo
  • Checkmark Inside Circle.Customized online program and wellness coaching
  • Prescription medications and supplies shipped to your door