Diagnoses A-Z

Gallstones Symptoms, Causes & Treatment Options

Learn about gallstones, including symptoms, causes, treatment options, and when to seek consultation. Or take a quiz to get a second opinion on your gallstones from our A.I. health assistant.

An image depicting a person suffering from gallstones symptoms

Gallstones Symptom Checker

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Contents

  1. Overview
  2. Symptoms
  3. Potential Causes
  4. Treatment, Prevention and Relief
  5. When to Seek Further Consultation
  6. Questions Your Doctor May Ask
  7. References

What Is Gallstones?

Summary

Gallstones are small, round deposits found in the gallbladder, the organ where bile is stored. Gallstones can be subclassified a number of ways. Oftentimes, gallstones will be referred to as either cholesterol stones or pigment stones depending on the makeup of the gallstone.

Gallstones can also be classified as asymptomatic or symptomatic, which determines how the condition is managed. Presenting symptoms may include pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal bloating.

Treatment for symptomatic gallstones primarily involves the removal of the gallbladder.

Recommended care

You should visit your primary care physician to speak about your pain. Your doctor would perform an ultrasound to recognize something going on in your gallbladder.

How common is gallstones?

Uncommon

Must-symptoms

Symptoms that always occur with gallstones:

  • Abdominal pain (stomach ache)

Never-symptoms

Symptoms that never occur with gallstones:

  • Abdominal pain that improves after passing stools

Gallstones is also known as

There are a number of different terms for illnesses due to gallstones including:

  • Cholelithiasis
  • Cholecystolithiasis
  • Cholecystitis
  • Choledocholithiasis
  • Biliary colic

Gallstones Symptoms

Gallstones are a very common condition, affecting approximately six percent of men and nine percent of women in the United States [1]. The majority of cases of gallstones are asymptomatic and are found during imaging tests for other medical conditions [2]. The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder is not considered a disease process until these stones cause symptoms. The gallbladder stores bile, a substance in our bodies that helps us break down fats after meals. Hormones in the body that are released when we eat signal the gallbladder to contract to emit bile.

Main symptoms

Symptoms of gallstones generally occur when the stone obstructs the outflow of bile from the gallbladder, causing a backup and leading to pain.

  • Right upper quadrant pain: The right upper quadrant is the upper, right aspect of the abdomen, where the liver and gallbladder are found. As discussed above, the gallbladder stores bile, which flows out of the bile duct to our intestines when we eat. When a gallstone stone obstructs the bile duct, bile builds up in the gallbladder and causes distension of the organ, leading to pain [3].
  • Biliary colic: This describes the pattern of the right upper quadrant pain often associated with gallstones. Biliary colic is fluctuating right upper quadrant pain that occurs when the gallbladder contracts and forces the stone into the bile duct thus producing pain. This pain fluctuates because when the gallbladder stops contracting and the stone dislodges from the duct, the individual may return to being asymptomatic.
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Other symptoms

There are other symptoms of gallstones that are less common than right upper quadrant pain, nausea, and vomiting.

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Early satiety
  • Belching
  • Clay-colored stools

Complications

While most people with gallstones are asymptomatic, gallstones can cause a number of serious complications in addition to pain with meals.

  • Cholecystitis: Cholecystitis is acute inflammation of the gallbladder that most commonly occurs as a complication of gallstones. Cholecystitis is characterized by the triad of right upper quadrant pain, fever, and elevated white blood cell count.
  • Choledocholithiasis: Choledocholithiasis presents similarly to cholecystitis with fever, right upper quadrant pain, and elevated white blood cell count but is due to an obstruction from a stone in a different portion of the bile duct.
  • Gallstone pancreatitis: Gallstones have the potential to cause acute inflammation of the pancreas by obstructing outflow of pancreatic enzymes from the pancreatic duct. These enzymes that are produced by the pancreas are intended to help break down fats in digestion. When the pancreatic duct is obstructed, these enzymes can lead to a process called autodigestion of the pancreatic tissue, resulting in pancreatitis.

Gallstones Causes

As previously discussed, gallstones can be classified as either cholesterol stones or pigment stones. While rates vary across the literature, cholesterol gallstones have been cited to cause as high as 90 percent of all cases of gallstones [4]. Gallstones more commonly present in women, which is thought to be associated with increased levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone [5].

Cholesterol-rich stones

Cholesterol-rich stones are more commonly seen in people with high fat and carbohydrate diets. Other risk factors for cholesterol stones include experiencing rapid weight loss, being of Native American ethnicity, and having Crohn’s disease or cirrhosis [4].

Pigment stones

Pigment stones are composed of red blood cell breakdown products and are seen in people with the blood disorders sickle cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis.

Diagnosis

A workup for gallstones should be pursued if an individual presents with the symptoms detailed above. Lab tests in a person with asymptomatic gallstones or with biliary colic, the waxing and waning pain associated with periodic duct obstruction, will usually be normal. Abnormal results on tests specific to the gallbladder including liver enzymes (AST, ALT), gamma-glutamate transferase, and alkaline phosphatase suggests one of the complications of gallstones listed above. The most commonly used test for diagnosing gallstones is a right upper quadrant ultrasound. Gallstones are best visualized on ultrasound if the individual has been fasting for at least eight hours. Ultrasound as a diagnostic test for gallstones has a sensitivity of 84 percent and specificity of 99 percent [6].

Gallstones Symptom Checker

Take a quiz to find out if your symptoms point to gallstones

Treatment Options and Prevention for Gallstones

Treatment

Most people with gallstones are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. If gallstones are found incidentally on imaging but do not cause any problems, it is not recommended to pursue further treatment.

  • Cholecystectomy: People who have biliary colic or complications of gallstones can be managed with the removal of the gallbladder.
  • NSAIDs followed by an outpatient cholecystectomy: Anyone with biliary colic who presents to the emergency department will usually be treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen for pain control and will be instructed to follow-up as an outpatient for cholecystectomy.
  • Procedure type: Most cholecystectomies are performed laparoscopically as opposed to an open incision due to reduced post-operative pain and length of hospital stay associated with the former [7].

Prevention

Many of the factors that predispose people to gallstones, including age, gender, and ethnic background, are not within a person’s control. However, you can modify your diet to reduce foods high in cholesterol and fat and consequently reduce your risk of gallstones.

When to Seek Further Consultation for Gallstones

If you are experiencing sudden-onset right upper quadrant pain you should consult your physician. People with right upper quadrant pain and fever may be experiencing a dangerous complication of gallstones and should seek care immediately.

Questions Your Doctor May Ask to Determine Gallstones

To diagnose this condition, your doctor would likely ask about the following symptoms and risk factors.

  • Is your abdominal pain getting better or worse?
  • Is your abdominal pain constant or come-and-go?
  • Have you lost your appetite recently?
  • How long has your abdominal pain been going on?
  • Any fever today or during the last week?

The above questions are also covered by our A.I. Health Assistant.

Gallstones Symptom Checker

Take a quiz to find out if your symptoms point to gallstones

References

  1. Everhart JE, Khare M, Hill M, Maurer KR. Prevalence and ethnic differences in gallbladder disease in the United States. Gastroenterology. 1999;117(3):632-9. PubMed Link
  2. Phillips MM. Gallstones. U.S. National Library of Medicine: MedlinePlus. MedLinePlus Link
  3. Symptoms & causes of gallstones. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. NIDDK Link
  4. Sattar HA. Gallbladder and biliary tract. In: Fundamentals of Pathology. Chicago, IL : Pathoma; 2011.
  5. Lee JY, Keane MG, Pereira S. Diagnosis and treatment of gallstone disease. Practitioner. 2015;259(1783):15-9. PubMed Link
  6. Shea J, Berklin J, Escarce J, et al. Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(22):2573-2581. PubMed Link
  7. Abraham S, Rivero HG, Erlikh IV, et al. Surgical and nonsurgical management of gallstones. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(10):795-802. AAFP Link
  8. Njeze GE. Gallstones. Niger J Surg. 2013;19(2):49-55. NCBI Link