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Lower Back Pain

The good news about lower back pain is that there are many ways to treat it yourself.
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Last updated April 14, 2022

Lower back pain quiz

Take a quiz to find out what's causing your pain.

Care Plan


First steps to consider

  • Mild to moderate lower back pain can usually be treated at home.
  • Rest, ice and heat, ibuprofen (Advil), and gentle stretching can help back pain.
See home treatments

When you may need a provider

  • Back pain does not get better on its own in about 4 weeks
  • Moderate to severe back pain that affects your everyday activities.
See care providers

Emergency Care

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Call 911 or go to the ER if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • New worsening back pain and you’re older than 60
  • Fever
  • Weakness in your leg
  • Loss of control of your bowel or bladder or not able to urinate
  • Numbness or tingling in your lower extremities (hip and below)
  • Prior diagnosis of cancer
  • Trauma in the past 48 hours (car accident or a fall)

What is lower back pain?

Pro Tip

Most people will experience severe low back pain during their life and almost all will get better with non-surgical treatment. Exercise and stretching, over-the-counter medications, and a healthy lifestyle are really the best things to speed recovery. —Dr. Brian Walcott

Pain that is felt anywhere between the lower part of your ribs to the lower part of your backside is considered lower back pain.

There are two types: Sciatica (called lumbosacral radiculopathy) and non-sciatica. The sciatica nerve runs from your lower back through your buttocks and down your legs.

Sciatica pain is often described as a sudden, hot pain that shoots down the buttocks and leg. Sciatica can be caused by a number of conditions that put pressure on the sciatica nerve.

Non-sciatica pain is mostly in your back and not felt in the legs.

Lower back pain can also be caused by arthritis, over-exertion, and trauma.

Back pain usually improves on its own in about 4 weeks. If you are experiencing significant pain, or your pain isn’t getting better, contact your doctor.

Understanding types of lower back pain

Sciatica and non-sciatica pain have somewhat different symptoms.

Sciatica symptoms

Sciatica pain typically feels like a sharp, electric-like pain that starts in your lower back and travels through the buttocks and down one leg.

Non-sciatica pain

Non-sciatica pain is felt within the lower back area. The pain can be dull, achy, sharp, or burning.

Main symptoms


  • Sharp pain in your back that moves down one leg.
  • The pain is usually felt behind the legs.
  • Sometimes there is numbness or weakness in legs.


  • Dull, achy, or sharp pain mostly in your back. It’s usually worse with movement.
  • Usually not felt in legs.
  • Can feel like your back is “tight.”
  • May be painful around your hips.

Pro Tip

If symptoms don’t get better on their own—it takes time—talk to your doctor about the next steps. Different types of doctors evaluate and treat back pain, including primary care, physical medicine and rehabilitation, sports medicine, pain medicine (anesthesia), orthopedic surgery, and neurosurgery. —Dr. Walcott

Causes of low back pain

The longest nerve in the body is the sciatica. it starts in your lower spinal cord and extends through the butt, down into your legs.

Sciatica pain is caused by something irritating the sciatic nerve at its root in the spinal cord. If a disk (the cushion between bones in the spine) moves out of position (known as a disk herniation), or if the bones, disks, or ligaments wear down with age, this can pinch or irritate the sciatica nerve nearby and cause pain.

Several other conditions can mimic sciatica, including diabetic polyneuropathy, hip arthritis, and piriformis syndrome. A doctor will do an exam and may order tests to make an accurate diagnosis.

For non-sciatica lower back pain, the cause is often unknown. It may be caused by damage to the spinal disks, bones, and joints, or strains to soft tissue like muscle or ligaments.

You’re more likely to develop lower back pain if you:

  • Smoke cigarettes (smoking lowers bone density and may affect your spine)
  • Drink alcohol regularly
  • Are overweight or obese
  • Participate in sports like football or gymnastics, which put pressure on your spine
  • Sit for most of the day
  • Over-exercise (doing too much shoveling or pushing too hard)
  • Have certain health issues like osteoporosis or pain in other parts of your body, such as hip, knees, or wrist
  • Take medications like steroid pills
  • Have had surgery on your spine
  • Are older

What can I do to relieve my lower back pain?

Dr. Rx

Ask your doctor what you can do to speed your own recovery. Oftentimes, the most effective measures to cure back pain include exercise, stretching, and weight loss—all of which depend on you! —Dr. Walcott

Your doctor will probably tell you to continue your normal activities. You can use ice packs or heat for pain relief and to reduce muscle tension. And take over-the-counter pain relievers.

Your doctor may prescribe medications to relieve pain and relax back muscles. They may recommend physical therapy, exercise, and over the long-term, weight loss.


Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescribed medications can relieve symptoms. Discuss any possible side effects with your doctor before taking.

  • OTC drugs like acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen and naproxen, and lidocaine patches can help reduce pain and inflammation.
  • There are several types of prescription drugs your doctor may recommend. They include muscle relaxants, prescription-strength NSAIDs, and neuropathic pain modulators (gabapentin).

Discuss the risks of any of these drugs with your doctor. For example, NSAIDs may cause stomach irritation and other digestive tract issues.

If the pain does not go away, your doctor may want to look at your spine with X-rays or other types of imaging. There are many treatment options you can try.

They might suggest getting a steroid injection close to the nerves causing the pain. If the pain is from tight muscles (a knot) in your lower back, your doctor may suggest a trigger point injection (injecting small amounts of anesthetic and steroid into the muscle).

Some of the more common options include:

  • Physical therapy (includes electric stimulation, manual therapy, stretching and strengthening exercise, heat/ice).
  • An epidural injection of a steroid and pain reliever (i.e. lidocaine) close to the nerves causing the pain.
  • Trigger point injections.
  • Depending on your diagnosis, there are various surgical procedures that could be considered.

Ready to treat your lower back pain?

We show you only the best treatments for your condition and symptoms—all vetted by our medical team. And when you’re not sure what’s wrong, Buoy can guide you in the right direction.See all treatment options
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How do I know if my back pain is serious?

Lower back pain usually gets better on its own. If you are experiencing significant pain or if the pain lasts longer than a month, see your doctor.

If you have a history of cancer, feel weakness in your legs, have urinary incontinence or loss of bowel control, fever, or other bodywide symptoms, then you may have a more serious issue such as a herniated disk or cancer. Go to the emergency room.

If you had a trauma (like a fall or motor vehicle accident), go to the emergency room.

Most lower back pain gets better after about 4 weeks of medications and/or physical therapy. If the pain continues, discuss with your doctor what to do next.

How to prevent back pain

You can help prevent back pain by leading a healthy lifestyle and following these tips:

  • Do aerobic exercise like swimming or walking.
  • Stretch and strengthen the muscles supporting your lower back. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons recommends these exercises.
  • If you smoke, stop.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • Avoiding extreme sports and activities that put too much stress on your back.
  • Avoid sitting for long periods of time. Try to take breaks where you stand up and walk around.

Avoid heavy lifting, and lift properly, bending at the knees, not the waist

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The stories shared below are not written by Buoy employees. Buoy does not endorse any of the information in these stories. Whenever you have questions or concerns about a medical condition, you should always contact your doctor or a healthcare provider.
Dr. Walcott is a dual fellowship trained neurosurgeon that specializes in neurovascular disease. His clinical interests are in the management of patients with stroke, brain aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, carotid artery disease, moyamoya disease, brain tumors, and spinal cord tumors. He performs both surgery and minimally invasive, endovascular procedures. Dr. Walc...
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