Swollen nose quiz
Take a quiz to find out what's causing your swollen nose.
Swelling of the nose, either internal or external, can be frustrating and sometimes painful. Swelling inside of the nose can be caused from irritation from an obtrusive object, inflammation from allergies, or nasal polyps. Outside nose swelling can also be caused from allergic reactions or trauma from an injury.
4 most common causes
Swollen nose symptoms
Swelling occurs whenever the parts of the body enlarge due to accumulation of fluid in the body tissues. Swelling can be generalized and occur throughout the body, or be localized and only affect a specific part of the body.
Most people are familiar with localized swelling, and in the case of a swollen nose, this type of swelling is difficult to ignore, especially if the swelling is external. However, internal swelling of the nose may be more difficult to discern. Though there is some overlap between the symptoms of internal and external swelling of the nose, there are some important differences to note.
Common characteristics of external nose swelling
If your nose is swelling externally, you are likely to experience:
Common characteristics of internal nose swelling
If your nose is swelling internally, you are likely to experience:
- Sensation of nasal blockage or difficulty breathing through the nose
- Runny nose
- Nasal congestion
- Nasal discharge
- Decrease in sense of smell
- Postnasal drip: Mucus running down the back of the throat
- Pain, tenderness or pressure: This may be felt around the forehead, eyes, cheeks or nose.
Common accompanying symptoms of a swollen nose
Both types of swollen nose symptoms can cause:
- Generalized pain in the affected area
- Redness or warmth
If you notice any of these swollen nose symptoms, promptly make an appointment with your doctor to follow up on your symptoms, get a diagnosis and receive appropriate care.
Swollen nose causes
Though different, both external and internal causes of nasal swelling are relatively limited. Any condition that causes accumulation of fluid in the tissues of your finger, for example, will cause swelling, but not many conditions specifically target the nose.
Causes of external nasal swelling are largely environmental such as:
- Trauma: Anything that causes direct injury to the nose — a punch in the face, a car accident, a traumatic fall — can result in external swelling of the nose, especially if the nose breaks. These causes may also be associated with visible deformity and bleeding depending on the severity of the trauma.
- Insects: Insects are a nuisance in general, but insects become even more annoying when they happen to involve the nose. A bite from any insect — mosquito, spider, flea, etc. — can cause the nose to swell and also become itchy and painful.
Causes of internal nasal swelling
Causes of internal nasal swelling can be divided into the following.
- Obstructive/structural: Sometimes the nose can become lined with soft, painless, noncancerous growths known as nasal polyps. The mechanism for the growth of these polyps is currently unknown, but they can cause swelling of the internal nasal cavity and lead to blockage and congestion that worsens swollen nose symptoms. Structural abnormalities such as a deviated septum or narrow nasal passage can also lead to swelling and its associated symptoms.
- Inflammatory: Any condition that causes your body to mount its natural immune response against irritation and injury – infection, allergy, autoimmune disease – can cause internal selling of the nose. Swelling is one of the primary signs of inflammation and often goes hand-in-hand with inflammatory causes. Nearly 37 million Americans suffer from at least one episode of acute nasal inflammation each year.
8 conditions of a swollen nose
This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.
Iatrogenic nose condition
Surgery of the nose or nose piercing can result in side effects ranging from infection, pain and swelling to numbness and decreased sense of smell.
Top Symptoms: nose pain, bloody nose, bump in or on the nose, nose redness, swollen nose
Urgency: Phone call or in-person visit
Wegener's granulomatosis, more recently re-named granulomatosis with polyangiitis, is a disorder in which a dysregulated immune system causes widespread inflammation of small blood vessels throughout the body. This results in slower or impaired blood flow to your nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, and kidneys.
Symptoms can be widespread and affect various parts of the body such as the eyes and ears or respiratory system, yet usually begin more generally with fever, fatigue, a loss of appetite, and weight loss. With treatment, a full recovery is possible; however, this condition can be fatal.
Treatments include immunosuppressive medications in order to control the disease in the short- and long-term.
Rarity: Ultra rare
Top Symptoms: fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, shortness of breath, fever
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Relapsing polychondritis is an episodic, inflammatory and destructive disorder involving primarily cartilage of the ear and nose. It can also potentially affect the eyes, tracheobronchial tree, heart valves, kidneys, joints, skin, and blood vessels.
You should visit your primary care physician for mild severity of relapsing polychondritis. Medications such as NSAIDs and steroids are generally prescribed.
Nose or sinus tumor
A tumor in the nose or one of the sinuses occurs due to abnormal growth of the cells lining the inside of the nose and sinuses. These tumors are rare and can cause symptoms like congestion or blockage, nose bleeds and sometimes facial pain or swelling.
You should visit your primary care physician to discuss your symptoms and to get further tests done. Referral to an ENT surgeon is likely needed.
Rarity: Ultra rare
Top Symptoms: new headache, congestion, vision changes, ear fullness/pressure, ear pain
Symptoms that never occur with nose or sinus tumor: improving congestion
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Non-specific nasal injury
Nasal injuries are very common due to the position of the nose on the face. While fragile, many injuries to the nose are not actually fractures.
You can go see your doctor tomorrow, who can rule out a fracture. Imaging and physical exam can find fractures of the nose. Treatment for a non-fracture is just ice and simple pain management.
Top Symptoms: constant nose pain, nose pain caused by trauma, swollen nose, nose bruise, bloody nose after being hit in the nose
Symptoms that always occur with non-specific nasal injury: nose pain caused by trauma, constant nose pain
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, or shortened GPA, was formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis. It is caused by inflammation of the blood vessels by the body's immune system. The inflammation can happen anywhere, but often affects the sinuses, lungs, and kidneys.
You should visit your primary care physician soon to provide an early diagnosis. Treatment of inflammatory diseases commonly involve prescription medications such as a steroid to decrease inflammation, and a cell-damaging medicine to kill abnormal cells.
Nasal fractures are common occurrences. The force needed to break the nasal bones is less than any of the other bones of the face because of their thinness and position. For kids, treatment and diagnosis is different because of the bones may not be fully formed.
You should go to urgent care or the emergency room immediately by car, where diagnosis can be confirmed by taking pictures. Treatment involves stabilizing the nose and referring to an Ear/Nose/Throat surgeon or a plastic surgeon for further management.
Top Symptoms: mouth breathing, constant nose pain, swollen nose, nose pain caused by trauma, nose bruise
Symptoms that always occur with broken nose: nose pain caused by trauma, swollen nose, constant nose pain
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Swollen nose treatments and relief
It may be difficult to prevent causes of external nasal swelling. However, if your symptoms are due to a traumatic cause, promptly make an appointment with your doctor to assess for serious injury.
Put an ice pack over your nose every 15 minutes to minimize further irritation and prevent continued fluid accumulation in your tissues.
Unlike with external nasal swellings, there are many lifestyle changes and measures you can take to prevent internal nasal swelling symptoms.
- Limit exposures that cause upper respiratory infections: Upper respiratory infections are contagious and usually passed from person-to-person. Limit contact with people with cold symptoms, wash hands frequently and utilize other good hygiene practices.
- Avoid pollutants: Cigarette smoke and other pollutants can irritate and inflame the nasal passages. Take measures to limit your contact with such pollutants to prevent swollen nose symptoms.
- Manage allergies and inflammatory conditions: Keeping symptoms of seasonal allergies and other inflammatory conditions under control will help keep your nose protected from insults that can quickly cause swelling and its associated symptoms.
If these preventive methods do not improve your swollen nose symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor. Nasal swelling can quickly become uncomfortable and debilitating if not treated properly.
When to see a doctor
If conservative methods are ineffective, your doctor may suggest the following.
- Irrigation: Saline nasal sprays or solutions can rinse away irritants from the nasal passages, decrease blockage and promote drainage.
- Anti-inflammatory: Medications that prevent and treat inflammation such as inhaled corticosteroids are often used to combat the many causes of internal nasal swelling.
- Decongestants: Medications that reduce congestion and sensations of nasal blockage can help relieve swelling and its associated symptoms.
- Pain relievers: Swelling and pain often go hand-in-hand. Your doctor may prescribe over-the-counter pain medications to combat these swollen nose symptoms.
When it is an emergency
Seek immediate care if:
- You cannot breathe
- Are experiencing a fever
- Have severe pain
- Have nausea, you vomit, or have trouble with your vision
- Have experienced a head injury
You should also seek care immediately if your nose is bleeding profusely and will not stop or you believe you have broken your nose.
Questions your doctor may ask about swollen nose
- Do you have any body piercings?
- Have you ever had any surgeries?
- Were you struck in the nose?
- Were you recently exposed to the freezing cold (under 32F or 0C)?
Self-diagnose with our free Buoy Assistant if you answer yes on any of these questions.
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