Symptoms A-Z

Outer Ear Pain Symptoms, Causes & Common Questions

Outer ear pain can most commonly be caused by environmental conditions such as water exposure or extreme cold weather that can lead to frostbite of the outer ear. Other causes for ear tragus pain include irritation from obtrusive objects like cotton swabs or fingers. Read below for more information on causes and treatment options.

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Outer Ear Pain Symptoms

Outer ear pain usually begins as mild discomfort that is often worsened by pulling on the ear or pushing on the bump (tragus) in front of the ear. At the onset of outer ear pain symptoms, the appearance of the ear usually does not change. It may not look red, swollen or deformed, so initial symptoms may be easy to dismiss.

However, the outer ear is more than just the cartilaginous, fleshy part used for earrings and other piercings. The outer ear is also composed of a canal that runs from the eardrum to the outside of the head.

As a result, outer ear pain symptoms may progress to include symptoms such as:

If not addressed promptly, outer ear pain and its associated symptoms can develop rapidly to include severe outer ear pain symptoms such as:

  • Redness and swelling of the ear
  • Pain that radiates from the ear to the face or neck
  • Decreased or muffled hearing
  • Excessive fluid drainage or pus

It is important to follow up on symptoms of outer ear pain promptly in order to get appropriate care and prevent the development of more severe symptoms and consequences.

Outer Ear Pain Causes

The majority of causes of outer ear pain stem from infection of the outer ear canal or otitis externa. Since the ear is open to the outside world, it is easily susceptible to infection by both bacterial and viral causes. Even though the outer ear canal has natural defenses that work to keep the ears clean and prevent infection, any condition that compromises these natural defenses can result in outer ear pain symptoms.

Irritation:

  • Scratches/Abrasions: Practices such as excessive cleaning of the ear with cotton swabs or scratching inside the ear with a finger can result in breaks in the skin that allow bacteria to grow.
  • Sensitivity: Jewelry and sometimes hair products can cause allergy and irritation to the skin that can promote infection.

Blockage:

  • Conditions that result in excess moisture inside the ear canal create an environment ideal for bacterial growth.

  • Environmental: External factors such as swimming and heavy perspiration put moisture directly into the ear canal. Repeated exposure can result in bacterial growth and future infection.

  • Structural: Some people have narrow ear canals that make drainage of moisture more difficult. This structural anomaly causes blockage that traps water and promotes bacterial growth and infection.
  • Devices: Gadgets that you put directly into your ear such as headphones or hearing aids can also cause blockages that trap excess water.

6 Possible Outer Ear Pain Conditions

The list below shows results from the use of our quiz by Buoy users who experienced outer ear pain. This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.

Swimmer's ear (otitis externa)

Swimmer's ear, or otitis externa, is an infection of the canal which runs from the eardrum to the opening of the ear.

It is caused by anything that introduces bacteria, fungus, or a virus into the canal. Water that stays inside the ear after swimming is a common cause, as are cotton swabs used for cleaning or earpieces that create irritation.

Most susceptible are children, because they have narrower ear canals that do not drain well.

Early symptoms include redness, itching, and discomfort inside the ear canal, sometimes with drainage of clear fluid.

Even mild symptoms should be treated because they can quickly get worse. The infection can spread and intensify, becoming very painful with increased drainage, swelling, fever, and loss of hearing.

Diagnosis is made through patient history and physical examination of the ear canal. Lab tests may be done on a sample of the discharge from the ear.

Treatment includes having a medical provider clean the ear canal of debris and discharge, and a prescription for antibiotic and/or steroid eardrops.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: fever, ear canal pain, ear fullness/pressure, jaw pain, ear pain that gets worse when moving

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Relapsing polychondritis

Relapsing polychondritis is a disorder in which defects develop in cartilage and other tissues throughout the body, including the ears, nose, eyes, joints, and respiratory tract. It is considered a rare condition.

Symptoms vary widely by case, but you may experie...

Mild frostbite of the ears

Frostbite is tissue damage caused by exposure to the cold (at or below 32F or 0C). It is most commonly found in people doing leisurely activities like camping, hunting, or snow sports. It is also more likely in those who are intoxicated or have a mental disorder.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: swollen ear, ear numbness, outer ear pain, ear redness, turning blue or purple from coldness

Symptoms that always occur with mild frostbite of the ears: cold ears

Urgency: Hospital emergency room

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Mild frostnip of the ears

Frostnip is damage of the outermost layers of the skin caused by exposure to the cold (at or below 32F or 0C). It is most commonly found in people doing leisurely activities like camping, hunting, or snow sports.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: ear numbness, outer ear pain, ear redness, turning blue or purple from coldness, cold ears

Symptoms that always occur with mild frostnip of the ears: cold ears

Urgency: In-person visit

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin. It can appear anywhere on the body but is most common on the feet, lower legs, and face.

The condition can develop if Staphylococcus bacteria enter broken skin through a cut, scrape, or existing skin infection such as impetigo or eczema.

Most susceptible are those with a weakened immune system, as from corticosteroids or chemotherapy, or with impaired circulation from diabetes or any vascular disease.

Symptoms arise somewhat gradually and include sore, reddened skin.

If not treated, the infection can become severe, form pus, and destroy the tissue around it. In rare cases, the infection can cause blood poisoning or meningitis.

Symptom of severe pain, fever, cold sweats, and fast heartbeat should be seen immediately by a medical provider.

Diagnosis is made through physical examination.

Treatment consists of antibiotics, keeping the wound clean, and sometimes surgery to remove any dead tissue. Cellulitis often recurs, so it is important to treat any underlying conditions and improve the immune system with rest and good nutrition.

Rarity: Uncommon

Top Symptoms: fever, chills, facial redness, swollen face, face pain

Symptoms that always occur with cellulitis: facial redness, area of skin redness

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Eczema (atopic dermatitis)

Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a non-contagious chronic skin condition that produces an itchy rash. It is caused by a genetic condition that affects the skin's ability to protect itself from bacteria and allergens. The most susceptible are those with a family hi...

Outer Ear Pain Treatments and Relief

At the onset of outer ear pain symptoms, seek prompt medical attention.

Your doctor will treat your outer ear pain by stopping the infection and allowing the ear to heal.

  • Drainage/Cleaning: Your doctor will use suction or a small device to drain water and clear away debris, earwax or extra skin. This is necessary to allow for the next step, the antibiotic eardrops, to move freely through all infected areas of the ear. Depending on the extent of blockage or swelling, your doctor may insert cotton or gauze in the ear to promote drainage instead.
  • Ear-drops: Your doctor will prescribe ear-drops with a combination of ingredients that fight bacteria and fungi. These will also reduce inflammation and help restore your ear's normal pH balance.
  • Pain medication: To ease the outer ear pain symptoms, your doctor may suggest over-the-counter non-opioid pain medications.

During treatment make sure to take your eardrops as prescribed. Avoid getting water in your ears (even during showers) and do not use headphones, hearing aids or earplugs until pain or discharge has stopped.

In order to prevent outer ear pain symptoms from occurring, there are many things you can do at home and change in your normal routine.

  • Keep your ears dry: Thoroughly dry your ears after exposure to moisture from swimming or bathing. Practice techniques such as tipping the head to the side to help water drain from the ear canal and wipe the outer ear slowly and gently with a towel.
  • Do not put foreign objects in your ear: Do not attempt to scratch or dig out earwax with objects such as cotton swabs (Q-tips) or paper clips. These items may not only irritate or break the skin in your ear, but can also pack the material deeper into your ear canal worsening blockage and moisture buildup.
  • Protect your ears from irritants: Be conscious of the type and quality of jewelry and piercings you use on your ears. Furthermore, protect your ear canal from hair sprays and dyes by using cotton balls or other protective measures.

Questions Your Doctor May Ask About Outer Ear Pain

To diagnose this condition, your doctor would likely ask the following questions:

  • Is there anything coming from your ear(s)?
  • Any fever today or during the last week?
  • Do you use a hearing aid or wear earplugs?
  • Do you often come into contact with hot tubs, swimming pools, or other sources of standing water?

The above questions are also covered by our A.I. Health Assistant.

If you've answered yes to one or more of these questions

Take a quiz to find out what might be causing your outer ear pain

Outer Ear Pain Symptom Checker Statistics

People who have experienced outer ear pain have also experienced:

  • 16% Ear Canal Pain
  • 11% Pain Behind The Ear
  • 5% Swollen Ear

People who have experienced outer ear pain were most often matched with:

  • 46% Mild Frostbite Of The Ears
  • 30% Swimmer'S Ear (Otitis Externa)
  • 23% Relapsing Polychondritis

People who have experienced outer ear pain had symptoms persist for:

  • 46% Less than a week
  • 33% Less than a day
  • 9% Over a month

Source: Aggregated and anonymized results from visits to the Buoy AI health assistant (check it out by clicking on “Take Quiz”).

Outer Ear Pain Symptom Checker

Take a quiz to find out what might be causing your outer ear pain

Disclaimer: The article does not replace an evaluation by a physician. Information on this page is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes.