Symptoms A-Z

Shortness of Breath When Lying Down Symptom, Causes & Questions

Shortness of breath when lying down, also known as orthopnea, can affect individuals when sleeping or awake. When experiencing difficulty breathing or wheezing when lying down, you may also have a cough or heart palpitations. Causes of shortness of breath at night when lying down include heart-related conditions like congestive heart failure, lung-related conditions like bronchitis, or mental health issues that can cause hyperventilation. Read below for more information on causes and treatment options.

This symptom can also be referred to as: dyspnea when lying down

An image depicting a person suffering from shortness of breath when lying down symptoms

Shortness Of Breath When Lying Down Symptom Checker

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Contents

  1. Symptoms
  2. Causes
  3. 6 Possible Conditions
  4. Treatments and Relief
  5. Questions Your Doctor May Ask
  6. Statistics
  7. References

Difficulty Breathing When Lying Down Explained

It shouldn't be a medical condition that takes your breath away. Have you ever woken up at night, breathless, needing to sit up and dangle your legs over the side of the bed to get relief? It's like waking up from a nightmare only to find that feeling of being smothered is real.

Shortness of breath when lying down is also called "orthopnea." It can happen whether you are sleeping or awake [1]. Orthopnea plagues people with heart and lung conditions. People with sleep apnea are also prime targets for orthopnea.

In describing their experiences, people with orthopnea have said, "When I lie down, I feel...":

  • like I am hungry for air.
  • uncomfortable when I breathe.
  • like my chest is tightening.
  • like I can't take a deep enough breath.
  • I am out of breath.
  • I have to work hard to breathe.
  • I am being smothered.

Most orthopnea is caused by an underlying heart or lung condition [2,3]. However, there are other conditions that could be leaving you gasping for air.

What Causes Shortness of Breath When Lying Down?

Heart-related shortness of breath causes:

  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic valve regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, myocarditis are some heart-related conditions that may cause orthopnea. Under such conditions, the heart is unable to pump effectively, and not enough oxygenated blood reaches your lungs.

Lung-related shortness of breath causes:

  • Bronchitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary embolism and cystic fibrosis are some lung-related conditions that may cause orthopnea. Under these conditions, oxygen is not effectively transferred into your lungs, even if your heart is working well.

Other shortness of breath when lying down causes:

  • Sleep apnea, panic disorder, anemia, nasal congestion, pregnancy, gastrointestinal conditions, allergies and anaphylaxis, obesity and travelling to high altitudes are some other possible conditions that may cause orthopnea. Sleep apnea is one of the bigger offenders [4]. It is more often seen in men, smokers, people who are overweight or have a sinus abnormality. Sleep apnea is often what causes the snoring, snorting and restlessness that forces your bed mate to sleep in the guest room.

6 Possible Shortness Of Breath When Lying Down Conditions

The list below shows results from the use of our quiz by Buoy users who experienced shortness of breath when lying down. This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.

Congestive heart failure

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to effectively pump blood to the rest of the body. Heart failure can affect the right side, left side, or both sides of the heart. It can be subcategorized as "heart failure with preserved ejection f...

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Acute or worsening heart failure

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that the heart has stopped or is about to stop working, but rather that the heart is not able to pump blood the way it should. Usually this happens when the heart has been damaged by another medical condition.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, shortness of breath on exertion

Urgency: Emergency medical service

Hyperventilation syndrome

Hyperventilation syndrome is a type of anxiety or panic attack, where the primary symptom is fast, shallow breathing that leads to a drop in carbon dioxide levels in the blood. This drops changes the body chemistry and causes the discomfort.

Any sort of fear or excitement that might provoke an anxiety attack can bring on hyperventilation syndrome.

Symptoms are worse in some patients than in others, but include anxiety; lightheadedness; pain and constriction in the chest; numbness and tingling of the extremities; and a feeling of suffocation.

It is important to seek treatment for hyperventilation syndrome, because the symptoms can be debilitating and interfere with quality of life.

Diagnosis is made through detailed patient history, as well as a complete physical examination and lab tests to rule out any other conditions.

Treatment involves showing that patient that, during an anxiety attack, simply breathing into a paper bag for a few minutes will ease the symptoms and allow recovery. Psychological counseling, with an emphasis on managing stress, is also helpful.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: anxiety, shortness of breath, dizziness, racing heart beat, chest pain

Symptoms that always occur with hyperventilation syndrome: rapid, deep breaths

Symptoms that never occur with hyperventilation syndrome: shortness of breath after a few stairs

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Shortness Of Breath When Lying Down Symptom Checker

Take a quiz to find out what might be causing your shortness of breath when lying down

Aortic valve regurgitation

Aortic valve regurgitation occurs when the aortic valve one of the four valves in the heart fails to function properly and allows blood to flow backward through it. When some blood flows back from the aorta into the heart, it puts pressure on the heart and...

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Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a type of heart disorder in which the walls of the heart become stiff, preventing it from filling with blood normally. The atria become enlarged and blood flow in the heart is gradually reduced, which may lead to heart failure o...

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Dilated cardiomyopathy

MISSING

Rarity: Ultra rare

Top Symptoms:

Urgency: Hospital emergency room

Treatment for Trouble Breathing at Night/When Lying Down

Seek immediate medical care if you have orthopnea and:

  • Any other heart attack symptoms. Heart attack symptoms include chest pain, nausea, profuse sweating, back, neck or arm pain.
  • Severe shortness of breath, especially if severe enough that you are not able to talk.
  • Are having an allergic reaction (no matter how minor).

Even if your shortness of breath when lying down cannot be cured, there are many steps you can take to limit how severe it is.

If you are experiencing relatively benign (not life-threatening) orthopnea, one of the best practices is to avoid sleeping or lying flat on your back [5]. Understandably, this can be a difficult adjustment for back sleepers. You might fall asleep on your side, but that doesn't mean you will stay on your side. An unusual, but successful approach, is to help you stay off your back is to attach tennis balls to the back of your night shirt or you can actually buy one pre-made. You won't be able to roll onto your back.

Generally, relieving orthopnea requires treating the condition that is causing it. In the meantime, these are some other tricks for shortness of breath relief:

  • Sleep in a semi-reclined position
  • Wear nasal strips
  • After consulting a physician get a CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine you might look like Darth Vader while wearing it, but you won't sound like him anymore
  • Lose weight
  • Ask your dentist if there is a dental device that could help you

Questions Your Doctor May Ask About Shortness Of Breath When Lying Down

To diagnose this condition, your doctor would likely ask the following questions:

  • Have you been feeling more tired than usual, lethargic or fatigued despite sleeping a normal amount?
  • Any fever today or during the last week?
  • Do you have a cough?
  • Do you notice your heart beating hard, rapidly, or irregularly (also called palpitations)?

The above questions are also covered by our A.I. Health Assistant.

If you've answered yes to one or more of these questions

Take a quiz to find out what might be causing your shortness of breath when lying down

Shortness Of Breath When Lying Down Symptom Checker Statistics

People who have experienced shortness of breath when lying down have also experienced:

  • 6% Shortness Of Breath
  • 4% Tight, Heavy, Squeezing Chest Pain
  • 4% Cough

People who have experienced shortness of breath when lying down were most often matched with:

  • 50% Acute Or Worsening Heart Failure
  • 28% Congestive Heart Failure
  • 21% Hyperventilation Syndrome

People who have experienced shortness of breath when lying down had symptoms persist for:

  • 36% Less than a day
  • 25% Over a month
  • 21% Less than a week

Source: Aggregated and anonymized results from visits to the Buoy AI health assistant (check it out by clicking on “Take Quiz”).

Shortness Of Breath When Lying Down Symptom Checker

Take a quiz to find out what might be causing your shortness of breath when lying down

References

  1. Mukerji V. Dyspnea, Orthopnea, and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, eds. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd ed. Boston,MA: Butterworths; 1990. NCBI Link.
  2. Shortness of Breath Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors. American Lung Association. Updated March 13, 2018. American Lung Association Link.
  3. Roth A, Haranath SP. Learn About Shortness of Breath. Chest Foundation. Updated January 2018. Chest Foundation Link.
  4. Azagra-Calero E, Espinar-Escalona E, Solano-Reina E, et al. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Review of the Literature. Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal. 2012;17(6):e925-e929. NCBI Link.
  5. Best Positions to Reduce Shortness of Breath. Lung Institute. Published March 10, 2018. Lung Institute Link.

Disclaimer: The article does not replace an evaluation by a physician. Information on this page is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes.