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Infection & Disease

This article will review the symptoms, causes, and management of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Symptoms of the preceding illness include headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, or altered mental status, followed by the condition-specific symptoms of difficulty controlling limbs or eyes, trouble swallowing, speaking, or urinating, vision loss, spastic movements of the limbs, seizures, bleeding in the brain, as well as possible depression and psychosis.

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An acute upper respiratory infection (URI) is any infection of the nose or throat, which are part of the body’s upper respiratory system. URIs cause the common cold and tend to be relatively mild infections.

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Aseptic meningitis is a specific type of meningitis that refers to inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by something other than a bacterial infection, most commonly, a viral infection.

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Bacterial meningitis is inflammation of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord due to an infection. Symptoms can escalate quickly and include fever, headache, neck stiffness, nausea and vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light and is considered a medical emergency.

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A brain abscess is a serious infection that causes your brain to swell. It's caused by bacteria getting into your brain, usually from intravenous drug use, recent brain or heart surgery, or chronic sinus infections. A brain abscess can cause many different symptoms, including headaches, fever, speech problems, nausea and vomiting, and even seizures. If you don’t treat it early, it can also cause serious neurological damage.

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A breast abscess is a collection of infected fluid, or pus, within the breast that is generally painful. Other symptoms of a breast abscess include fever, chills, fatigue, and body aches. Treatment for a breast abscess involves antibiotics or a procedure to drain the fluid.

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Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that have been infecting humans for a very long time. And they are very common.Learn why COVID-19 is so dangerous—and what makes it different from other coronaviruses.

Flu season this year brings the risk of both the flu (influenza virus) and COVID-19 (coronavirus). Similar symptoms include fever and cough. One difference is that with COVID-19 some people lose their sense of taste and smell.

The common cold is a frequent and regular viral infection of the nose and throat. Conditions are usually harmless and symptoms resolve within two weeks.

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Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin and the soft tissue beneath the skin. Cellulitis usually occurs when bacteria enter the skin through small cuts or scrapes. It causes a painful, red, swollen rash and needs to be treated with antibiotics.

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This article will review the symptoms, management, and prevention of the acute condition chickenpox. Symptoms include a widespread rash and flu-like symptoms.

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Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Symptoms can be subtle but can include abnormal vaginal discharge in women and painful urination in men. It can be prevented with safe sex practices and treated with antibiotics.

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Chronic prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland located between the bladder and penis. It causes urinary pain symptoms and painful ejaculation.

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You’re tired, you have a headache, a sore throat, and you’re sneezing. Is it a cold? Or is it the flu? Learn how to differentiate between these illnesses.

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Coxsackievirus is a highly contagious group of viruses that is common in children, It causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina. Both cause fever and painful blisters. Though uncomfortable, they typically go away on their own.

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Croup is caused by several common viral infections that cause the upper airways to swell. Its hallmark symptom is a barky cough. Croup is generally not serious and can be treated at home, but severe cases need immediate medical attention.

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Disseminated gonococcal infection causes joint and tendon pain, small fluid-filled bumps on the skin, fever, and chills.

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E. coli strains can be harmless while some can cause bloody diarrhea. Strains of E. coli bacteria may cause urinary tract infection (UTI), severe anemia or kidney failure.

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Ear infections are extremely common infections in kids although adults get them, too. They can be caused by a bacteria, virus, or fungus, and can be very painful, causing ear and head pain. Treatment options may or may not include taking antibiotics.

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Influenza, or the flu, is a respiratory illness caused by a virus. It causes muscle aches, headache, fever, sore throat and makes you feel tired. Most people recover on their own.

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Flu season peaks between December and February. It’s important, especially this year during the COVID-19 pandemic, to get your flu shot and follow other ways to prevent the flu.

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The flu is highly contagious and caused by influenza viruses. Kids—and adults—most often catch the flu in winter. In healthy kids, symptoms are mild. But very young children or kids with chronic conditions can have complications. The best way to protect your child is with a flu shot.

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Head lice is a condition that causes intense itching of the scalp and is mostly seen in children. Head lice are easily treated with oral or topical medication.

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HIV is a viral infection that multiplies, infects and progressively gets rid of certain white blood cells. Read about the symptoms and stages of HIV.

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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and causes warts around the genitals and other surrounding areas.

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Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection and is spread from contaminated food or water, or an infected person. Hepatitis A is preventable by vaccine.

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Hepatitis B is a liver infection and is spread by sharing infected bodily fluids. This condition often does not show symptoms but chronic cases can cause serious damage.

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The pandemic has increased anxiety in children and teenagers. It’s important for parents to keep an eye out for behavioral changes that signal anxiety. There’s a lot you can do to help prevent and ease anxiety.

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It's hard enough worrying that every cough or sniffle is a sign of COVID-19. For those with allergies, it can be even harder. We’ll help you figure it out.

A lung abscess is a bacterial infection that occurs in the lung and causes tissues to die while a pus-filled cavity develops in its place.

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Lymphangitis is inflammation of the lymphatic channels at the site of an injury and affects the swelling of common lymph nodes areas.

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Rubeola, or measles, is a viral infection that's serious for small children but can be prevented by the vaccine. It's spreadable by air through coughing or sneezing.

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Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that causes small round bumps with a tiny dimple in the center. They are painless but may itch. They easily spread through contact with clothing and towels.

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Mononucleosis—often nicknamed “the kissing disease”—is a very common and contagious infection. It spreads through bodily fluids, like saliva or blood. The virus, called Epstein-Barr, can cause a fever, sore throat and extreme exhaustion, sometimes for months. There is no cure for mono—and no real treatment. But you can make symptoms better while the virus runs its course.

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Mumps is a highly contagious infection that affects the salivary glands under the ears. It causes swelling in the side of the face, along with other symptoms.

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Norovirus is a contagious virus that affects your digestive tract, causing nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is not a stomach flu. Staying hydrated is important to avoid dehydration.

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Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition in which an infection has breached or circumvented the outer portion of the eye and affected the tissues of the orbit.

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Paronychia is when the skin around your nails gets infected. It is caused by bacteria or yeast. The skin around the nail might get red, swollen, painful, and become filled with pus. Most cases get better in less than a week if treated.

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Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection in the female reproductive system—the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. It’s usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases and needs to be treated to prevent complications.

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Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs, causing the air sacs in one or both of your lungs to become inflamed. This causes a cough, chest pain, and a fever. It can be bacterial or viral.

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Prostate infections are not uncommon in men. They happen when bacteria gets into the prostate gland and causes inflammation. Symptoms include painful urination, chills, and muscle aches.

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Mental illnesses are on the rise during the pandemic. They are triggering issues in people who didn’t have any before, and making mental health worse in those who were already struggling. Being aware of its impact and taking steps to protect your mental health can help improve your wellbeing.

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Rotavirus causes severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting, most commonly in infants and young children. It’s a gastrointestinal virus, and is highly contagious, though milder in older children and adults.

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Septic arthritis is a painful infection in a joint that can come from organisms (bacterial, fungal or viral) that travel through your bloodstream. The joints affected are usually the knee, hip, or shoulder.

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A skin abscess is a painful lump beneath the skin that fills with pus and bacteria. Larger abscesses usually need to be treated by a doctor, who will drain them and possibly prescribe antibiotics.

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Strep throat is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the throat and tonsils, and needs to be treated with antibiotics. Strep is common in children, causing pain and redness in the throat, and often a fever. But adults can get it too.

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Bronchitis is a viral infection of the lungs that leads to swelling of the bronchial tubes. The most common symptom is a cough with mucus. It usually develops after a cold. That is why it is sometimes called a chest cold.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that can be acute or chronic. Symptoms occur in three stages, characterized by a sore in the mouth or genital area, followed by a rash, and, if untreated, can progress to more serious issues such as blindness, paralysis, dementia, deafness, and death.

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There are many possible causes of your sore throat, including cold and flu viruses. Understand the cause of your sore throat to get the right treatment.

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Doctors have a better understanding of how to treat people with the coronavirus, resulting in fewer people being hospitalized and a higher survival rate for those who are. Learn about the new approaches to the disease.

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This article will discuss the respiratory illness whooping cough that can occur in children, adolescents, and adults. Symptoms include fatigue and malaise, a low-grade fever, excessive tearing, red eyes, severe coughing, a “whooping” sound on inspiration, and vomiting after coughing.

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COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, can cause a range of symptoms, from no symptoms at all, to mild, to life-threatening. Understand the progression of COVID symptoms.

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In asthma, the airways of your lungs overreact to various triggers, causing coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness. The flu can act as one of those triggers—and that can make your asthma symptoms worse. Learn how to treat them both.

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Find out how to treat bacterial conjunctivitis (pink eye)

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When bacteria enters your body through a wound or during surgery, you may develop a bone infection. Certain conditions, such as diabetes, raise your risk of bone infections. Getting early treatment is crucial, since some bone infections can become life threatening.

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Gastroenteritis (the stomach flu) and influenza (the flu) have different causes, and mostly different symptoms. But both can usually be treated at home—and a lot of the same precautions can keep you from getting either “flu” in the first place.

There are two types of herpes simplex virus—an oral type and a genital one. They both can cause outbreaks now and then, but are dormant most of the time. Both are contagious through intimate contact, so it’s important to take precautions with partners.

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Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs due to an infection. Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by viruses. Many symptoms overlap. If you get pneumonia from the flu, it can be serious, particularly if you are immunocompromised.

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Losing your sense of taste and smell can have a huge impact on your well-being. They often return on their own, but there are also things you can do to help them come back.

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Fatigue, pain, cough, headache, anxiety, brain fog, difficult breathing, and other symptoms can linger for weeks or months after COVID-19. Doctors are starting to understand how to treat the symptoms.

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Lyme disease is a bacterial disease transmitted to people by deer ticks. Lyme disease can cause fever, headache, fatigue, and a skin rash called erythema migrans, which looks like a bull’s eye.

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Monkeypox is a virus that causes flu-like symptoms followed by a rash. It is often spread by skin to skin contact.

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Both infections affect the lungs and cause similar symptoms. Pneumonia is less common but can be more severe and require hospitalization.

Find out how to treat your scabies?

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Shingles is a painful rash that results from reactivation of the virus that causes the chickenpox. Symptoms include small, fluid-filled blisters that form over a few days that then dry up and heal over several weeks. Pain or strange skin sensations may persist for longer.

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Sialadenitis is an infection of the salivary glands. It causes swelling and pain on the face, near the ears. It can be viral or bacterial. If it’s a bacterial infection, it’s treated with antibiotics.

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Bacterial sinusitis happens when bacteria enters your sinus cavity. It’s a very uncomfortable infection that causes swelling, nasal congestion, and face pain. It can last for weeks. Or go away only to come back. The right diagnosis is necessary to know if you need antibiotics or other treatments.

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Find out how to treat your vertebral osteomyelitis

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Find out how to treat your viral conjunctivitis

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