Finger Pain: Why You Might Have Finger Pain & When to See a Doctor
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Understand your finger pain symptoms, including 10 causes & common questions.
Symptoms of finger pain
Opening jars, closing doors, tying shoes — these are just a few things we need our fingers to do. Fingers are able to perform incredible and intricate work. The movement of our fingers is the result of a perfectly coordinated dance between different components. The three bones in each finger are covered in muscle, which are connected by tendons. When we want to move a finger, the brain sends an electric impulse to the specific muscle that either relaxes it or contracts it. Upon this change, tendons are activated. The ending result is a moved finger.
Common accompanying symptoms of finger pain
If a finger is suddenly aching, here are a few other symptoms you may experience.
- Pain when moving or putting pressure on the affected finger
- Numbness or tingling
What causes finger pain?
When you're plagued with finger pain symptoms, the cause can sometimes be a mystery. Several common causes are detailed below and may be helpful in your quest for relief. However, not all of these causes can be self-diagnosed.
Traumatic causes of finger pain may include the following.
- Bruises and strains: Slamming your finger in the car door or having it bent backwards playing basketball are just two examples of finger injury.
- Fracture: Though incredibly strong, the bones in our fingers are easier to break and fracture than others. Stress fractures aren't always easy to spot in fingers either. Swelling, difficulty moving the affected hand and finger, and trouble holding onto objects are signs of potential fractures.
Causes of finger pain related to infection may include the following.
- Bacterial: Paronychia is the most common bacterial infection found on the hand. It's typically localized to the skin around the fingernail. However, a cut anywhere on the finger can become infected, leading to severe finger pain if left untreated.
- Viral: One type of viral infection that affects fingers is herpetic whitlow. It's the most common viral infection of the hand and causes pain in the fingertip area.
Other medical conditions may result in finger pain, such as the following.
- Joint issues: Arthritis can lead to finger pain. While some of the first joints to be affected are usually the knees, hips, or spine, those diagnosed also express weakness in their hands along with finger pain.
- Nerve damage: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a prime example of how nerve damage can cause tingling and discomfort in the fingers.
- Blood vessel trauma: Thoracic outlet syndrome occurs when compression causes a lack of blood flow to the extremities. Finger tingling and numbness are a symptom.
This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.
Jammed fingers are common in sports but may occur during daily activity.
Top Symptoms: recent finger injury, finger pain from an injury, swollen finger, finger joint stiffness, finger bruise
Symptoms that always occur with jammed finger: recent finger injury, finger pain from an injury
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Raynaud phenomenon, also called Secondary Raynaud syndrome, is a condition that causes small arteries in the skin to abnormally constrict on exposure to cold water or air. This limits blood flow to the hands, fingers, feet, toes, nose, and ears.
Secondary Raynaud syndrome is rare and is caused by another underlying medical condition, often a connective tissue disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, or lupus.
Women are more likely than men to be affected, especially if living in cold climates. Family history and smoking are also risk factors.
Symptoms include the hands and feet becoming numb and cold. The skin color changes from pale to bluish, and then to red as the skin warms again.
If not treated, patients may get ulcerated sores or deformities of the fingers and toes, or even gangrene, due to the lack of circulation.
Diagnosis is made through patient history, physical examination, and blood tests.
Treatment includes medications to help increase circulation; treatment of any underlying conditions; and lifestyle changes to gain better protection for the extremities in cold conditions.
Top Symptoms: distal numbness, cold toe, cold fingers, spontaneous toe pain, spontaneous finger pain
Non-serious finger injury
Finger injuries are very common & rarely need medical treatment.
Top Symptoms: recent finger injury, finger pain from an injury, swollen finger, severe finger pain
Symptoms that always occur with non-serious finger injury: recent finger injury
Symptoms that never occur with non-serious finger injury: bent or crooked finger
Arthritis is a general term for multiple conditions that cause painful inflammation and stiffness throughout the body. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic condition that is autoimmune in nature, meaning that the body's immune system which normally protects the body by att...
Psoriatic arthritis is a condition which causes inflammation of the joints. In most circumstances, psoriatic arthritis presents between the ages of 30 and 50 years and occurs after the manifestation of the symptoms of psoriasis, which is a disease of the skin. Psoriatic arthritis..
Boxer's fracture is a term for a fracture of one of fingers and generally occurs after a closed fist makes contact with a hard object.
Top Symptoms: finger pain, swollen finger, finger bruise, punched a hard object
Symptoms that always occur with boxer's fracture: finger pain, swollen finger, punched a hard object
Urgency: In-person visit
Nail infection (paronychia)
Paronychia is an infection of the skin of the fingers or toes, at the place where the skin folds down to meet the nail.
Acute, or sudden onset, paronychia is caused by the staphylococcus bacteria. The organism can gain entry if the nail is cracked, broken, bitten, or trimmed too closely.
Chronic, or ongoing, paronychia is caused by a fungus. Anyone whose work requires their hands to be wet much of the time is susceptible.
People with diabetes or a weakened immune system are more susceptible to nail infections.
Symptoms include sore, reddened, swollen skin around the nail, sometimes with pus collecting under the skin.
Diagnosis is made through physical examination and sometimes skin culture to identify the organism involved.
Treatment for acute paronychia involves having a medical provider clean the wounded nail and drain any infection, and sometimes provide a course of antibiotics.
Treatment for the chronic form involves keeping the skin dry and using an antifungal medication on the affected nail.
Top Symptoms: spontaneous finger pain, fingernail pain, fingernail swelling
Urgency: Phone call or in-person visit
Finger that is bent out of shape
You should have your finger x-rayed. It's not a good idea to try and fix the finger by yourself.
Top Symptoms: bent or crooked finger
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
A dislocated finger is the result of one of the bones in the finger being pulled apart or sideways out of alignment. Finger dislocations usually occur when the finger is bent too far backward. Although a common injury, finger dislocations that are not treated properly can result in chr..
The extensor tendon found on the backside of the hand, and the flexor tendon, found on the palm side, work together to extend the fingertip. Mallet finger is an injury to the extensor tendon that causes an inability to extend the fingertip. It is commonly caused by a direct blow to the fingertip, ..
Finger pain treatments and relief
Not all cases of finger pain require a trip to the doctor; however, if your finger pain worsens or persists, you should schedule an appointment.
If you don't feel a trip to the doctor is necessary to treat your finger pain symptoms, there are several remedies you can try at home.
- R.I.C.E.: If there is no serious cause behind your finger pain, use R.I.C.E. — an acronym for rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Rest the finger as much as possible and ice it several times a day. Compress it when possible and elevate it during periods of rest.
- Buddy tape: Tape your injured finger to a healthy finger next to it. The tape should be stiff and not allow your fingers to move. This allows you to use part of your body as a natural splint and prevent your injured finger from moving while it heals. This is ideal for small fractures and sprains.
- Pain medication: To combat swelling and discomfort, over-the-counter pain relievers can be used as directed. NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve) and aspirin.
- Epsom salt: For general pain, soaking your finger in a bowl with Epsom salt can soothe muscles and relax stiff joints.
When to see a doctor
When you can't complete simple tasks without grimacing in pain, find the cause of your discomfort and see a physician. Your care team may complete the following.
- Medical questionnaire: This document can help determine specific symptoms and a timeline.
- Physical examination: This exam is to notate swelling, redness, and limited movement.
- Lab tests: Testing can point out an infection.
- Imaging tests: These tests can show broken bones or reveal trauma.
When it is an emergency
If you're experiencing the following, seek medical attention sooner than later.
- Bleeding from an injury that won't stop
- Visible trauma to the finger: Such as a protruding bone
- Signs of infection: Including redness, warmth, and pus
- Inability to move finger at all
- Severe pain that shows little to no improvement over the course of several days
FAQs about finger pain
Why do my fingertips hurt?
Painful fingertips can be a minor problem or a dangerous sign of a serious disease. To discover why your fingertips are hurting, the first step is to review any activities that could lead to tenderness or pain along the fingertips. This includes musical instruments and texting. Other common causes of fingertip pain include disorders like Raynaud's Syndrome in which some of the fingers to not get adequate blood flow and worsen with exposure to cold.
Why are my fingers stinging?
Fingertips commonly sting when they are exposed to caustic agents like bleach or severe cold for long periods of time. It may also be a symptom of disorders that predispose one to pain in the cold like Raynaud's Syndrome or disease of clogged arteries like peripheral artery disease (PAD). If you have continual finger stinging, you should seek medical evaluation.
How do I know if my finger is broken?
A broken finger can best be identified by an X-ray or by a detailed clinical exam. Pain with movement can indicate either a sprain or a fracture, point tenderness or tenderness that is severe in only one spot can indicate a fracture. Treatment usually involves taping or bandaging the finger to the adjacent finger.
Can arthritis cause finger pain?
Yes, arthritis can cause finger pain. There are many types of arthritis, but the most common types (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis) both cause finger pain. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) commonly causes morning stiffness that tends to abate over an hour to half an hour. Osteoarthritis, however, commonly becomes worse during the day.
Questions your doctor may ask about finger pain
- Where on your finger is the pain worst?
- Do any of your body parts (e.g., toes, hands, ears) feel cold?
- Did you injure your finger?
- Did you get a manicure and/or pedicure in the past few days?
Rochel specializes in writing for health, dental and orthodontist industry. She has written several eBooks that have ranked number one in their category. Rochel received her BA from College of Lake County.
- Finger Pain. U.S. National Library of Medicine: MedlinePlus. Updated Jan. 7, 2019. MedlinePlus Link
- Finger Fractures. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons: OrthoInfo. Reviewed Dec. 2013. OrthoInfo Link
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- Betz D, Fane K. Herpetic Whitlow. [Updated 2018 Oct 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. NCBI Link
- Ghasemi-Rad M, Nosair E, Vegh A, et al. A handy review of carpal tunnel syndrome: From anatomy to diagnosis and treatment. World J Radiol. 2014;6(6):284-300. NCBI Link
- Systemic Diseases. American Society for Surgery of the Hand. ASSH Link