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Restless Legs Syndrome

RLS causes an irresistible urge to move your legs while you’re resting or sleeping. It runs in families and can be caused by certain diseases. It is treatable with coping techniques, exercise, lifestyle modifications, and medications.
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Medically reviewed by
Last updated October 10, 2021

Restless legs syndrome questionnaire

Use our free symptom checker to find out if you have restless legs syndrome.

Restless legs syndrome questionnaire

Use our free symptom checker to find out if you have restless legs syndrome.

Restless legs syndrome symptom checker

What is restless legs syndrome?

Restless legs syndrome (also known as Willis-Ekbom disease) is a nervous system disorder that can affect your sleep. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) causes an overwhelming urge to move your legs. This sensation is worse in the evening and while you’re resting.

For many people it starts when lying down and resting before sleep, but it can also happen when you are sitting still.

People of all ages can get it, but it often worsens with age. RLS can happen for a variety of reasons, including genetics and other medical conditions. RLS is treatable with coping techniques, exercise, lifestyle modifications, and medications.

Most common symptoms

Pro Tip

RLS is a hard problem for friends and family to understand because they can’t “see” anything wrong with you. But studies have shown that at least 3% and possibly as many as 14% of the population have RLS symptoms. What you are feeling is a real sensation and you are not alone. —Dr. Farrah Daly

RLS causes discomfort in your legs (and less commonly your arms) that leads to an irresistible urge to move them. The discomfort is worse when you are not moving. RLS makes it difficult to fall asleep and stay asleep. You can become tired during the day from the frequent wakings.

Main symptoms

  • Uncomfortable sensations in the legs and arms that lead to an irresistible urge to move them.
  • Burning, throbbing, crawling, electric, and itching sensations.
  • Sensations that are worse in the evening or when you are resting.
  • Sensations go away when you move your legs and arms.
  • Trouble falling asleep or going back to sleep if you wake up during the night.
  • Difficulty staying awake throughout the day because of poor sleep.
  • Lack of focus when working on tasks during the day because of poor sleep.

Restless legs syndrome questionnaire

Use our free symptom checker to find out if you have restless legs syndrome.

Restless legs syndrome symptom checker

Restless legs syndrome causes

The cause of RLS is not known. It is believed to be a combination of genetics, environment, and other illnesses that cause it. RLS can run in families.

It is sometimes related to iron deficiency or kidney disease. Some research suggests that issues with the transmission of the brain chemical dopamine contributes to the problem. People with other diseases that have problems with dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease, may have a higher risk of RLS.

Risk factors

Dr. Rx

People often think that RLS is “just anxiety.” Anxiety can make the symptoms worse, but RLS is its own condition.  Many people who have RLS are not anxious. —Dr. Daly

RLS is more common in women and in adults. Several factors can increase your risk of developing RLS:

  • Genetics: There are several different genes linked to RLS. If you have familial RLS, you can pass it down to your children.
  • Medical conditions can raise your risk of RLS, especially iron deficiency and kidney disease.
  • Medications to treat depression, nausea, or psychosis can stimulate RLS.
  • Pregnancy can also trigger RLS. Most women with pregnancy-related RLS improve within a month after delivery, but it can return later in life.

Next steps

If you are experiencing symptoms that may be RLS, make an appointment with your doctor. Symptoms of RLS can be confused with other disorders that cause leg discomfort, such as diseases of the nerves or blood vessels. RLS may be a symptom of a more complex problem that should be addressed.

Go to the ER or call 911 if you notice the following symptoms, as you may have a more serious condition than RLS:

  • Unable to control your urination or your bowel movements.
  • Numbness in your hips or genital area associated with the sensations in your legs.

How do you stop restless leg syndrome fast?

Pro Tip

Patients with RLS may have a hard time describing in words what the discomfort feels like. They describe feeling “uncomfortable” and the feeling goes away if they move around. They can’t get into a position where they can just rest. —Dr. Daly

There are a number of lifestyle changes that you can try before you take any medications.

  • Get regular exercise. Exercise in the morning rather than before bedtime.
  • Practice healthy sleep behaviors: Avoid looking at electronics (phone, computer, TV) before going to sleep.
  • Avoid caffeine and alcohol before bed.
  • Try warm baths, gentle stretching, and massage before bed.
  • Review your medication list with your doctor to see if anything you’re taking might be contributing to RLS. Some medications used to treat depression, nausea, or psychosis can worsen the problem.

If your symptoms continue after trying these strategies, ask your doctor if they can recommend medications.

Restless legs syndrome questionnaire

Use our free symptom checker to find out if you have restless legs syndrome.

Restless legs syndrome symptom checker

Treatment

Your doctor may recommend the following supplements or medications to help manage your RLS symptoms:

  • Daily iron supplements if you have low iron levels.
  • Dopamine agonists, including ropinirole (Requip) and pramipexole (Mirapex). These help with dopamine activity.
  • Nerve medications, including gabapentin (Neurontin), pregabalin (Lyrica), and gabapentin enacarbil (Horizant), which change neurotransmitter activity.
Hear what 2 others are saying
RLSPosted October 3, 2020 by H.
Whenever I go to bed at night, it's hard for me to sleep because there is a tingling creepy-crawly sensation in my legs and want to move my legs continuously because If I don't it's very very irritating. Sometimes it happens in daytime too when I am resting, but mostly it happens at night. Do you think it is RLS?? I consulted a doctor once before about this sensation and they did not do anything about it. They gave some painkillers and that was it. It is not something that goes away with a painkiller. It's still there and is very very irritating.
RLS challengesPosted July 13, 2020 by H.
Female, early 50s. Have had restless legs since a child. Parents attributed 'growing pains' as the issue. But no. Read about this condition in an "Omni" magazine (I think) from the '80's. Caffeine is definitively a trigger for me. Simply cannot have it past 11 am or so. Take Mg, Vit's D, E, C, and recently started taking an iron oxide chewable supplement, but only bite off a third each day. Have had "divine" relaxation after intramuscular stimulation treatments, or "dry needling." The endorphin-like effects always help me sleep like a baby the night of. And I do think the severity is reduced for a time. What also helps is a reverse stimulation device, like a heavy-duty, multi-head massager. (I just cannot imagine a mere vibrating mat as helpful but whatever). I use it along the back of the legs and hips. The sort of numbing effect from this vibration can really help tell the brain to relax. And in the absence of that, hurdle stretches. (But held for a long time, like a full minute.) The yoga swan stretch can also be helpful. And chocolate. Chocolate late in the day, not just for the caffeine but the other mild stimulants in it like theobromine, can cause problems. (Theobromine has a half-life of about 7 hours plus or minus 40 minutes or thereabouts). Good luck to everyone with this problem. It may not be lethal but it certainly interferes with the quality of a person's life!
Dr. Farrah Daly, MD is a Hospice & Palliative Medicine Specialist in Leesburg, VA and has over 19 years of experience in the medical field. She graduated from Drexel University College of Medicine medical school in 2002.

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