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Tingling Lower Leg

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Last updated June 16, 2024

Tingling lower leg quiz

Take a quiz to find out what's causing your tingling lower leg.

Tingling in the lower leg can also have the feeling of numbness or a burning sensation in the lower leg. Causes of lower leg tingling include neurological issues of the back, restless leg syndrome, or diabetic neuropathy. Read below for more information on causes and treatment options for tingling in the lower leg.

Tingling lower leg quiz

Take a quiz to find out what's causing your tingling lower leg.

Take tingling lower leg quiz

Symptoms associated with tingling in lower legs

Lower leg tingling is a common complaint that drives many people to their doctors in search of relief. It can be caused by a variety of issues including medical conditions that affect the whole body or conditions that affect the nerves and nervous system. Typically the cause of lower leg tingling is not obvious and requires some investigation by your medical provider. While some causes of lower leg tingling can be managed with simple treatments, others require immediate medical attention and professional treatment.

Common accompanying symptoms of a tingling lower leg

If you're experiencing a tingling lower leg, you may also experience:

Duration of symptoms

The duration of your lower leg tingling can vary depending on the cause.

  • Acute: Lower leg tingling can resolve on its own over time, usually within days to a few weeks, if it is due to a nerve injury that heals over time.
  • Chronic: Lower leg tingling can also be chronic, lasting for several weeks or indefinitely.
  • Sudden-onset: Lower leg tingling that comes on suddenly is more concerning and should be evaluated by a medical provider.

Is my tingling lower leg serious?

Lower leg tingling can vary in severity and can be evaluated by the following.

  • Stroke symptoms: If your lower leg tingling is sudden in onset and associated with numbness, weakness/paralysis, arm numbness, vision problems, trouble with balancing or trouble speaking, these may be symptoms of a stroke and you should immediately seek medical attention.
  • Spinal nerve compression: If your tingling lower leg is also associated with sudden, severe back pain, trouble with balancing, sudden changes in bladder or bowel control, and numbness or weakness in one or both legs, buttocks, inner thighs or back of your legs, these could be symptoms suggesting your spinal nerves are being compressed and you should seek medical attention immediately.
  • If it occurs with the absence of other severe symptoms: If your lower leg tingling is not severe and not associated with any of the above-mentioned symptoms, it may not require immediate medical attention, but you should talk about your symptoms with a medical provider to identify the cause and best course of treatment.

What causes a tingling sensation in lower legs?

There are many potential causes for lower leg tingling. They typically fall into the categories of neurological injury caused by damage to the nerves or spinal cord, systemic diseases that affect the whole body, or medication side effects. How serious the lower leg tingling is and how soon to seek medical attention depends on the cause.

Neurological injuries

Causes that are more severe due to a neurological injury may include the following.

  • Stroke: A stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is blocked. Depending on which part of the brain is starved for blood flow/oxygen, the symptoms may be different. Sometimes strokes cause leg tingling, numbness, weakness or paralysis along with other symptoms like arm tingling/weakness/numbness, vision problems, trouble with balancing or trouble speaking. If you have any of these symptoms you should seek immediate medical attention.
  • Slipped disk: In between the bones that form your backbone are soft disks filled with a jelly-like substance that keep the individual bones of your backbone in place. When a disk ruptures and the jelly-like substance bulges out, it can press on one of the nerves coming out of your spinal cord. Usually bulging or slipping of disks occurs when you strain your back when lifting heavy furniture or exercising. A slipped disk can irritate the nerves going to your lower legs and this irritation can cause lower leg tingling.
  • Spinal stenosis: The spinal cord is protected and surrounded by the bones that form your backbone. It travels through a canal formed by these bones, and over time, especially with age, this canal can become more narrow. If the narrowing occurs in the lower back, it can put pressure on the nerves that come out of your spine. When this occurs, you can experience leg tingling, numbness, weakness and pain/cramping in your leg(s) with standing or walking that gets better with bending forward or sitting.
  • Sciatica: When a slipped disk or spinal stenosis affects the sciatic nerve (a nerve which branches from your lower back and travels through your hips, buttocks and down each leg), you can have symptoms of sciatica. Sciatica pain radiates from the lower back to the buttocks and down the back of your leg(s) depending on which sciatic nerve is irritated and can also be felt as a shock-like or burning sensation. Sciatica can also be associated with tingling, numbness, and weakness in the affected leg(s).
  • Tumor or abnormal growth: Abnormal growths or tumors can put pressure on the spine as it travels through the spinal canal. Tumors or growths in the lower back can irritate the spine or nerves coming out of the spine and can result in lower leg tingling, numbness, weakness, or pain.
  • Restless leg syndrome (RLS): Restless leg syndrome causes unpleasant or uncomfortable sensations in the legs accompanied by an irresistible urge to move the legs, typically starting in the late afternoon but most severe in the night when at rest. These sensations can include tingling, burning, itching, aching and/or a creepy-crawly feeling and can make falling asleep or staying asleep difficult, especially because the discomfort is typically relieved by moving the legs or walking.

Systemic diseases

Other underlying diseases can lead to feelings of tingling in the lower leg, such as:

  • Vitamin deficiency or electrolyte imbalance: An improperly balanced diet leading to vitamin deficiencies, especially in vitamin B, can lead to nerve damage causing lower leg tingling. In addition, some kidney and liver problems can cause a buildup or reduction in electrolytes (like potassium, calcium, and magnesium) that can result in nerve damage and lower leg tingling.
  • Diabetes mellitus: Diabetes can cause a type of nerve damage called diabetic neuropathy, which causes numbness, tingling and/or burning in the feet, and when severe, the legs as well.
  • Blood vessel problems: Medical conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes as well as smoking can cause a narrowing or partial blockage of the blood vessels in your leg(s), leading to a decreased oxygen supply to your nerves. This is known as peripheral artery disease (PAD). When this occurs, nerve damage can manifest as numbness, tingling, weakness, pain and/or a burning sensation in different nerves of your body, including the ones that go to your legs.
  • Autoimmune diseases: An autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system which usually works to protect you against diseases and infections instead starts to attack the healthy cells that make up your body. Some autoimmune diseases, like Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Barre Syndrome attack the nerves and are sometimes associated with recent viral infections. They can cause leg numbness, tingling, weakness and sometimes paralysis.
  • Infectious diseases: Some infectious diseases can cause nerve damage either by stimulating autoimmune attacks (see above) or by attacking the nerves directly. Most infectious diseases that lead to nerve damage are viral and include West Nile virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that can affect the nerves.

Medications, drugs or toxins

Many medications, drugs, and toxins can cause unpleasant effects lower leg tingling is one possibility. Certain chemotherapy drugs cause damage to the nerves in the arms and legs and can be associated with leg tingling. Excessive alcohol intake can also lead to nerve damage long-term. Exposure to toxins like lead, mercury, and arsenic can also lead to tingling in the lower leg(s).

This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.

Vertebral osteomyelitis

Vertebral osteomyelitis, or spinal osteomyelitis, is an infection in the bones of the spine. It usually affects the lumbar, or lower, back, and may be either acute or chronic.

The infection is caused by bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and by some types of fungi. These agents can travel through the bloodstream from an infected wound elsewhere in the body and reach the bones of the spine.

Most susceptible are those with weakened immune systems; poor circulation; recent injury; or undergoing hemodialysis. Osteomyelitis of the spine is the most common form of osteomyelitis in adults, though children can also be affected.

Symptoms include swelling, redness, and pain at the site of the infection, along with fever, chills, and fatigue.

A medical provider should be seen for these symptoms, as vertebral osteomyelitis can progress to abscess and cause further complications if not treated.

Diagnosis is made through blood tests, imaging of the spine, and sometimes biopsy.

Treatment involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotic or antifungal medication, which can be given as an outpatient.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: upper back pain, spontaneous neck or back pain, fever, foot numbness, upper leg numbness

Urgency: Hospital emergency room

Stroke or tia (transient ischemic attack)

Transient ischemic attack, or TIA, is sometimes called a "mini stroke" or a "warning stroke." Any stroke means that blood flow somewhere in the brain has been blocked by a clot.

Risk factors include smoking, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, though anyone can experience a TIA.

Symptoms are "transient," meaning they come and go within minutes because the clot dissolves or moves on its own. Stroke symptoms include weakness, numbness, and paralysis on one side of the face and/or body; slurred speech; abnormal vision; and sudden, severe headache.

A TIA does not cause permanent damage because it is over quickly. However, the patient must get treatment because a TIA is a warning that a more damaging stroke is likely to occur. Take the patient to the emergency room or call 9-1-1.

Diagnosis is made through patient history; physical examination; CT scan or MRI; and electrocardiogram.

Treatment includes anticoagulant medication to prevent further clots. Surgery to clear some of the arteries may also be recommended.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: dizziness, leg numbness, arm numbness, new headache, stiff neck

Symptoms that never occur with stroke or tia (transient ischemic attack): bilateral weakness

Urgency: Emergency medical service

Restless legs syndrome (RLS)

Restless Legs Syndrome, also called RLS or Willis-Ekbom Disease, is a neurologic and sensory disorder. It causes uncomfortable sensations in the legs that are only relieved by walking or by moving the legs.

The cause is not in the legs but in the brain. One theory is low levels of iron in the brain.

RLS may be hereditary. It is more common in women than in men, especially in middle age. It may get more severe as the person gets older.

Symptoms may happen only a few times a week and are usually worse at night.

There will be an irresistible urge to move the legs in order to relieve the uncomfortable sensations; difficulty sleeping, with daytime exhaustion and inability to concentrate; and sometimes depression and anxiety due to the effect on quality of life.

Diagnosis is made through patient history and physical examination. Blood tests and sleep studies may be done.

Treatment involves first addressing any underlying medical condition, such as iron deficiency. In some cases, anti-seizure medications can be helpful.

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a chronic condition that reduces blood flow in the arteries, usually arteries that lead to the legs. This reduced blood flow happens when clumps of fat (called plaques) build up inside these arteries, causing them to narrow. Symptoms include leg numbness, foot and thigh pain, cold feet, and muscle fatigue. These symptoms often occur when walking or exercising. The risk of developing PAD is higher in those who smoke or have diabetes. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, being overweight, and not getting much exercise also can put one at higher risk.

You should consider visiting a healthcare provider in the next two weeks to discuss your symptoms. Your provider can evaluate PAD with a review of your symptoms and a physical exam. An MRI may be performed as well. Once diagnosed, treatment involves medication, surgery, or procedures to open or bypass blocked arteries. Lifestyle changes regarding diet, exercise, and smoking cessation may also help.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: leg numbness, spontaneous foot pain, decreased exercise tolerance, cold feet, thigh pain

Symptoms that never occur with peripheral arterial disease (pad): calf pain from an injury, thigh pain from an injury

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a disease of the central nervous system. The body's immune system attacks nerve fibers and their myelin covering. This causes irreversible scarring called "sclerosis," which interferes with the transmission of signals between the brain and the body.

The cause is unknown. It may be connected to a genetic predisposition. The disease usually appears between ages 20 to 50 and is far more common in women than in men. Other risk factors include family history; viral infections such as Epstein-Barr; having other autoimmune diseases; and smoking.

Symptoms include numbness or weakness in arms, legs, or body; partial or total loss of vision in one or both eyes; tingling or shock-like sensation, especially in the neck; tremor; and loss of coordination.

Diagnosis is made through patient history, neurological examination, blood tests, MRI, and sometimes a spinal tap.

There is no cure for MS, but treatment with corticosteroids and plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) can slow the course of the disease and manage symptoms for better quality of life.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: severe fatigue, constipation, numbness, decreased sex drive, signs of optic neuritis

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Herniated (slipped) disk in the lower back

A herniated, ruptured, or "slipped" disc means that a vertebral disc – one of the soft pads of tissue that sit between each of the vertebral bones – has becomes squeezed out of shape. Its cushioning material has been forced against, and possibly through, the ring of fibrous tissue that normally contains it. This causes pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.

The normal aging process causes the discs lose moisture and become thinner, making them more vulnerable to "slipping."

Most susceptible are men from ages 30 to 50. Smoking, obesity, lack of exercise, and improper lifting are also risk factors.

Symptoms include pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling in the back, leg, and foot.

Diagnosis is made through patient history, neurological examination, and MRI scan.

Treatment begins with rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and sometimes epidural steroid injections into the back to ease pain and inflammation.

Surgery to remove the herniated part of the disc – the part that was squeezed out of place – can also be helpful.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: lower back pain, moderate back pain, back pain that shoots down the leg, back pain that gets worse when sitting, leg weakness

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Fibular nerve injury

The fibular nerves are also known as the peroneal nerves. Fibular nerves run from the lower spine all the way down the back of the leg, ending at the heel. If the are damaged or compressed, this can result in a condition known as foot drop.

The fibular nerves can be damaged through surgery, especially hip replacement or total knee replacement; any injury to the knee or low back; or neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.

Foot drop means that the person is unable to flex the foot upward from the ankle, because the fibular nerves that control this voluntary movement have been damaged. There may also be pain, numbness and weakness in the foot, and difficulty walking.

Diagnosis is made through physical examination, nerve conduction studies, and imaging such as x-ray or MRI.

Treatment involves using orthotics, which are specially made shoes, supports, and braces for the foot; physical therapy; and sometimes surgery to decompress or otherwise help repair the nerve.

Rarity: Uncommon

Top Symptoms: pain in the distribution of fibular nerve, numbness in fibular nerve distribution, difficulty walking or weakness with foot dorsiflexion

Urgency: Wait and watch


Fibromyalgia is a set of chronic symptoms that include ongoing fatigue, diffuse tenderness to touch, musculoskeletal pain, and usually some degree of depression.

The cause is not known. When fibromyalgia appears, it is usually after a stressful physical or emotional event such as an automobile accident or a divorce. It may include a genetic component where the person experiences normal sensation as pain.

Almost 90% of fibromyalgia sufferers are women. Anyone with rheumatic disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, may be more prone to fibromyalgia.

Poor sleep is often a symptom, along with foggy thinking, headaches, painful menstrual periods, and increased sensitivity to heat, cold, bright lights, and loud noises.

There is no standard test for fibromyalgia. The diagnosis is usually made when the above symptoms go on for three months or more with no apparent cause.

Fibromyalgia does not go away on its own but does not get worse, either.

Treatment involves easing symptoms and improving the patient's quality of life through pain medications, exercise, improved diet, and help with managing stressful situations.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: fatigue, arthralgias or myalgias, anxiety, depressed mood, headache

Symptoms that always occur with fibromyalgia: arthralgias or myalgias

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the damage done to nerve fibers in the extremities by abnormally high blood sugar. Anyone with diabetes is at risk for peripheral neuropathy, especially if the person is overweight and/or a smoker.

Symptom include pain, numbness, and burning in the hands, arms, feet, and legs; muscle weakness; loss of balance and coordination; and infections, deformities, and pain in the bones and joints of the feet.

Peripheral neuropathy can develop very serious complications, since the high blood glucose prevents any infection or damage from healing as it should. This can lead to ulcerated sores, gangrene, and amputation. For this reason, signs of peripheral neuropathy are considered a medical emergency and the person should see a medical provider as soon as possible.

Diagnosis is made through sensitivity tests and nerve conduction studies.

There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but the symptoms can be managed in order to slow the disease and help restore function. Treatment will include lifestyle improvements and the use of pain medication.

Chronic idiopathic peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy refers to the feeling of numbness, tingling, and pins-and-needles sensation in the feet. Idiopathic means the cause is not known, and chronic means the condition is ongoing without getting better or worse.

The condition is most often found in people over age 60. Idiopathic neuropathy has no known cause.

Symptoms include uncomfortable numbness and tingling in the feet; difficulty standing or walking due to pain and lack of normal sensitivity; and weakness and cramping in the muscles of the feet and ankles.

Peripheral neuropathy can greatly interfere with quality of life, so a medical provider should be seen in order to treat the symptoms and reduce the discomfort.

Diagnosis is made through physical examination; blood tests to rule out other conditions; and neurologic and muscle studies such as electromyography.

Treatment involves over-the-counter pain relievers; prescription pain relievers to manage more severe pain; physical therapy and safety measures to compensate for loss of sensation in the feet; and therapeutic footwear to help with balance and walking.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: distal numbness, muscle aches, joint stiffness, numbness on both sides of body, loss of muscle mass

Urgency: Primary care doctor

How to treat tingling in legs and feet

Some causes of lower leg tingling can be managed with at-home treatments while others require evaluation and treatment by a medical professional.

At-home treatments

Treatments that can begin at home include:

  • Heating or cooling pads: Warmth or coolness can help soothe tingling legs, especially if your leg tingling is associated with sore muscles or swelling from an injury.
  • Rest: Some causes of lower leg tingling, especially those associated with injury or straining like spinal stenosis, slipped disk, and sciatica, improve with rest. If your lower leg tingling is associated with blood vessel blockage, rest will also provide some relief.
  • Exercise: While some causes of lower leg tingling improve with rest, others like blood vessel blockage may improve over time by steadily and gradually increasing exercise. Exercise increases blood flow and strengthens blood vessels.
  • Healthy, balanced diet: Lower leg tingling associated with nutritional deficiencies can be treated and prevented with a diet sufficient in nutrients and vitamins, especially the B vitamins like thiamine, B12, and folic acid. B vitamins can be found in fish, poultry, meat, eggs, dairy products, leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas. Exercise and a healthy diet can also prevent some common causes of leg tingling like diabetes, stroke, and blood vessel problems from high blood pressure.
  • Smoking cessation: Smoking has a long list of associated medical conditions like diabetes, stroke, and blood vessel problems from high blood pressure that can lead to lower leg tingling.


A medical provider may prescribe medications to help with nerve tingling, such as:

  • Corticosteroids: These can help reduce inflammation-associated leg tingling, like the kind that happens with Multiple Sclerosis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, and other autoimmune disorders. They can be prescribed in the form of a pill or injected into spots where inflammation is causing pain around your spine or nerves.
  • Nerve blocks: Medications that block or interfere with the signaling in your nerves like gabapentin and pregabalin can help reduce tingling.
  • Antivirals or antibiotics: These medications can help if your medical provider thinks the cause of your lower leg tingling is a viral or bacterial infection.
  • Other medications: These may be required to treat the underlying condition causing your leg pain, such as medication for diabetes, high blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, or medications that increase or encourage blood flow.

Other medical treatments

Depending on the cause and other complications related to your lower leg tingling, you may require further medical treatment that can be recommended by your physician.

  • Physical therapy: If your leg tingling is due to back strain and/or nerve injury, your medical provider may recommend physical therapy to aid in the healing process.
  • Surgery: In some cases, surgery is recommended if other methods of treatment have not helped. Surgeries for spinal stenosis, slipped disk, sciatica, and tumors/abnormal growths focus on creating more room within the spinal canal or relieving pressure on any pinched nerves that are causing nerve damage and associated tingling, pain, weakness, or paralysis.

FAQs about tingling lower leg

Why does my lower leg tingling occur with walking or exercise?

Lower leg tingling with walking can be associated with diseases that affect the blood vessels in your legs. Claudication is the term used to describe pain or tingling in your lower legs with walking, caused by a partial blockage of the blood vessels in your legs. When you walk or exercise, the muscles and nerves in your legs need more blood flow, and when blood flow is blocked, you can feel a cramping, aching and/or tingling pain.

What does it mean if my lower leg tingling gets worse with exercise?

Lower leg tingling that worsens with walking or exercise may also be due to a spinal issue. Spinal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the spinal cord and a slipped/herniated disk occurs when the soft, jelly-like substance between the bones of your backbone bulges out and creates pressure on the spine or a nerve. Either of these problems can cause lower leg tingling that is worse with movement and better with rest.

Why does my lower leg tingling get worse at night or when I lay down?

Lower leg tingling that is worse at night, with rest, or while lying down may be due to restless leg syndrome. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is characterized by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations in the leg(s) that may be tingling, burning, itching, aching, or a creepy-crawly feeling. These sensations cause an urge to move the legs when lying down, and usually, movement decreases the symptoms of RLS. Peripheral artery disease due to a narrowing or blockage in the blood vessels in your legs can also cause worsening leg tingling and/or pain at night because when lying down, the blood flow to your legs decreases even more.

How can I tell if my lower leg tingling is associated with a stroke?

If your lower leg tingling is sudden in onset and associated with numbness, weakness/paralysis, arm numbness, vision problems, trouble with balancing or trouble speaking, these may be symptoms of a stroke and you should immediately seek medical attention.

What other symptoms associated with a tingling lower leg can indicate a serious condition?

If your tingling lower leg is also associated with sudden, severe back pain, trouble with balancing, sudden changes in bladder or bowel control, and numbness or weakness in one or both legs, buttocks, inner thighs, or back of your legs, this could be symptoms suggesting your spinal nerves are being compressed and you should seek medical attention immediately.

Questions your doctor may ask about tingling lower leg

  • Do you have trouble sleeping?
  • Are you sleepy during the day?
  • Have you been experiencing an unpleasant urge to move your legs?
  • Are your symptoms worse during the late afternoon or night?

Self-diagnose with our free Buoy Assistant if you answer yes on any of these questions.

Hear what 3 others are saying
Once your story receives approval from our editors, it will exist on Buoy as a helpful resource for others who may experience something similar.
The stories shared below are not written by Buoy employees. Buoy does not endorse any of the information in these stories. Whenever you have questions or concerns about a medical condition, you should always contact your doctor or a healthcare provider.
Severe calves sensationPosted January 28, 2022 by V.
There are frequent sensations in my both legs, sometimes right, sometimes left. It affects my productivity and it has been a year of experiencing this pain. And mostly it happens when I'm working. In the beginning, I was facing issues while falling asleep. But, now I can fall asleep, but in the daytime, it affects my productivity. And I don't know what to do, I'm just 21 years old (man).
My AZ leg story!!!Posted June 8, 2021 by D.
My upper right leg on the inside has been cramping off and on for many years. But recently (6-8 months) my right calf muscle and below have a tingling, almost cramping, feeling—a little during the day but mostly in the morning. And my right calf muscle is smaller than it is during the day. I was in a car accident 45 years ago where I came out with two dislocated ankles and a crooked pelvis. I've also had back issues occasionally during that time. But the lower leg issue is affecting me a bit now. Not sure what exactly to do.
Tingling and numbnessPosted May 10, 2020 by S.
I have had some tingling in my feet for many months. It seems to be worse at night. Then I started to feel some tingling in my left shin. I have also been having an issue, mostly at night, with my right hand and left wrist giving me some pain. (This may be arthritis-related but just happen to occur at the same time the tingling did).
Dr. Rothschild has been a faculty member at Brigham and Women’s Hospital where he is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. He currently practices as a hospitalist at Newton Wellesley Hospital. In 1978, Dr. Rothschild received his MD at the Medical College of Wisconsin and trained in internal medicine followed by a fellowship in critical care medicine. He also received an MP...
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  1. Stroke: Signs and Symptoms. UCSF Health. UCSF Health Link
  2. Herniated Disk. Mayo Clinic. Published March 6, 2018. Mayo Clinic Link
  3. Sciatica. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: OrthoInfo. Updated December 2013. OrthoInfo Link
  4. Spinal Stenosis. Mayo Clinic. Published March 8, 2018. Mayo Clinic Link
  5. Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Updated July 6, 2018. NINDS Link
  6. Autoimmune Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine: MedlinePlus. Updated October 23, 2018. MedlinePlus Link
  7. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Updated July 6, 2018. NINDS Link
  8. B Vitamins. U.S. National Library of Medicine: MedlinePlus. Updated August 1, 2018. MedlinePlus Link