What Causes a Swollen Mouth & When to Seek Care
Try our free symptom checker
Get a thorough self-assessment before your visit to the doctor.
Mouth swelling can happen in or around the mouth, such as the roof of the mouth, tongue, and lips. Causes range in severity, including temporary irritation from food or beverages to sudden swelling that may tighten the throat and restrict breathing. Read more below to learn about mouth swelling.
Swollen mouth symptoms
The mouth is perhaps the most sensitive part of the body. If the mouth fails to detect you're eating something hazardous, this is potentially harmful. That's why your mouth responds right away with warning signals such as redness, pain, and swelling if it is touched by anything that might cause allergy or illness.
Common characteristics of a swollen mouth
If you're experiencing mouth swelling it can likely present with:
- Swelling of the lips, tongue, and throat
- Red, sore, blistered appearance on the inside of the mouth
- A rounded lump anywhere inside the mouth: This lump may be painful or painless.
- Difficulty speaking and with other mouth functions: Such as eating and swallowing due to dryness, pain, and swelling
- Soreness and swelling of the roof of the mouth
Who is most often affected?
People who fit the following descriptions are more likely to experience a swollen mouth.
- Anyone who smokes
- Those not practicing good oral hygiene
Are swollen mouth symptoms serious?
The severity of mouth swelling depends on the cause.
- Not serious: Temporary irritation from foods or beverages will heal quickly with a little care.
- Moderately serious: See a physician for unexplained or persistent mouth swelling that causes pain or difficulty.
- Serious: See a physician immediately for sudden swelling, throat tightening, and difficulty breathing.
What causes a swollen mouth?
Many conditions can cause the symptom of a swollen mouth. The following details may help you better understand your symptoms and when and if you need to see a physician.
Allergies will usually cause swelling in other parts of the body, too, as well as in the mouth, lips, tongue, and palate (the roof of the mouth). Allergies can be due to the following.
- Products for your oral health
- Skincare products or makeup
- Plants that you have touched just before touching your mouth
- Insect bites or stings on the lips or even the tongue
Traumatic causes of tooth swelling may include the following.
- Dental treatment or surgery: These procedures may cause swelling right after.
- Sports injury: A ball or another player may strike you in the mouth and result in swelling.
- Another injury: A car accident can cause trauma to the mouth.
Infections of the tissues of and around the mouth itself can result in swelling.
- Bacterial infection: A bacterial infection can cause an abscess, which is a painful, infected lump inside the mouth.
- Cold sores: A viral infection or "cold sore" can cause the roof of the mouth to swell at the same time the sore appears.
- Spreading tooth infection: In rare cases, bacteria may spread from a tooth infection and get into the floor of the mouth. This infection can cause enough swelling to displace the tongue and push it back until it blocks the throat and, though rare, can cause difficulty breathing and a medical emergency.
Illnesses can lead to a swollen mouth, such as the following.
- Viral illness: Some viral illnesses can cause swelling and itching of the roof of the mouth, along with a sore throat, swollen glands and tonsils, fatigue, and high fever.
- Sinus infection: A sinus infection may cause swelling of the roof of the mouth as well as pain, pressure, fever, headache, and nasal congestion.
- Blocked salivary gland: A blocked salivary gland can fill up with mucus and form a cyst. A cyst is a soft, painless swelling that will appear in the cheeks or on the floor of the mouth.
Redness, soreness, and swelling in the mouth can occur with repeated exposures to irritating substances such as the following.
- Cigarette smoke
- Chewing tobacco
- Spicy foods
- Rough, salty foods such as corn chips or jerky
- Very hot beverages
Inflammation of the mucosa, or tissues lining the mouth, can cause sores, redness, and swelling of the gums and mouth due to the following.
- Radiation therapy to the head and neck
- Oxygen therapy
- Poor mouth hygiene
- Alcohol and tobacco use
- A very poor-quality, low-protein diet
Rare and unusual causes
More unusual causes of mouth swelling include the following.
- Hereditary swelling: Some forms of swelling are hereditary and may involve the mouth and throat as well as other parts of the body (where the swelling is known as edema).
- Tumors: These growths can cause swelling of the roof of the mouth if the tumor is above it or present as other types of mouth ulcers and lumps.
This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.
Allergic reaction (not life-threatening)
When the body encounters a harmful substance, it responds with inflammation and swelling that can be protective. In many individuals, the body responds this way to substances that are not normally harmful, like foods or pollen. This is the basis of allergy, or Type 1 Hypersensitivity.
Top Symptoms: swollen face, swollen lips, lip numbness, hives, red swollen bumps or patches with a pale center, lip redness
Symptoms that never occur with allergic reaction (not life-threatening): shortness of breath, throat itching
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening condition most commonly caused by an allergic reaction. In anaphylaxis, two types of immune cells — mast cells and basophils — are suddenly activated and release numerous inflammatory substances that cause blood vessels to dilate and become leaky, which can lead to low ..
Gingivitis is the inflammation of the gums. It is typically caused by poor dental hygiene and the buildup of bacteria. Its hallmark symptoms are swollen, discolored, bleeding gums. The main risk factors for the development of the disease are increasing age, smoking, and dry mouth. It is both treatable and ..
Ludwig's angina is a rare but serious infection of the space below the jaw and the floor of the mouth, under the tongue. This illness is not to be confused with "angina" which refers to cardiac pain due to coronary artery disease. The infection usually starts in the floor of the mouth th..
A cold sore is a skin lesion on the lips caused by infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Cold sores are extremely common. In fact, most adults are infected with HSV, usually transmitted in childhood by normal close contact with parents, siblings or friends.
While the infection can be entirely unnoti..
Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes fever and red and inflamed gums. This typically happens early in childhood.
Top Symptoms: fever, gum pain, painful mouth sore, gum swelling, gum redness
Symptoms that always occur with oral herpes: gum pain
Angioedema is a condition which can cause swelling and puffiness of the face, mouth, tongue, hand or genitals. It is often related to an allergic reaction to food, medicines or insect bites.
Top Symptoms: nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps (stomach cramps), diarrhea, swollen face, hand swelling
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Swollen mouth treatments and relief
You can try the following treatments at home.
- Reduce or eliminate tobacco use: Take steps to stop smoking and to stop using any chewing tobacco products.
- Cut down or discontinue drinking alcohol
- Practice good oral hygiene: Floss regularly and brush your teeth and gums at least twice per day.
- Protect your face: Use approved mouth guards and face masks when playing sports that require them.
When to see a doctor
You should consult your physician for any unexplained or troublesome lump or swelling, especially if you have pain, fever, or the feeling that the throat is constricted.
When it is an emergency
Seek immediate swollen mouth treatment in the emergency room or call 911 if you experience the following, which are symptoms of anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction that can be life-threatening.
- You have a swollen mouth and face with difficulty breathing
- Rapid heartbeat
- A rash
- A feeling of panic
Questions your doctor may ask about swollen mouth
- What part of your mouth is swollen?
- Do you have a rash?
- Does your throat feel itchy or irritated?
- Are your symptoms worse while eating?
Self-diagnose with our free Buoy Assistant if you answer yes on any of these questions.
Janeen has worked over eight years as a full-time medical transcriptionist, specializing in pain management and gynecologic oncology. She later began transcribing reports for hospital emergency rooms and acute care admissions. This background gave her a strong medical vocabulary as well as a heart for making medical information accessible to the average person, leading her to work as a medical writer. She began as a pre-veterinary medicine major at Texas State University.
- Arava M, Pinto A, AAOM Web Writing Group. Oral hypersensitivity reactions. The American Academy of Oral Medicine. Updated December 31, 2007. AAOM Link
- Anaphylaxis. U.S. National Library of Medicine: MedlinePlus. Updated April 17, 2018. MedlinePlus Link
- Shweta, Prakash SK. Dental abscess: A microbiological review. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2013;10(5):585-591. NCBI Link
- Hennessy BJ. Mouth sores and inflammation. Merck Manual Consumer Version. Updated September 2018. Merck Manual Consumer Version Link
- Oral cancer. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Hopkins Medicine Link