Read below about foot deformity, including causes, treatment options and remedies. Or get a personalized analysis of your foot deformity from our A.I. health assistant. At Buoy, we build tools that help you know what’s wrong right now and how to get the right care.

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Foot Deformity Symptoms

Foot deformities are a wide array of conditions that affect the bones and tendons in the feet. A foot deformity can be as common as a bunion or a hammer toe, or more rare like fused toes (tarsal coalition), a club foot, a flat foot, mallet toes and various other foot conditions.

The symptoms and names of various foot deformities are listed below.

  • Bunions. Picture women wearing shoes very pinched at the toe and how it would push the big toe inward. Eventually, what happens in both men and women who wear cramped-box shoes is that as the top of the toe moves in, the joint at the base of the toe protrudes outward, which causes toe pain as shoes wear against the protrusion. It can also throw off the gait and cause imbalance.

  • Claw toe. Claw toes are ones which begin to turn downward, resembling a bird's claw. This typically occurs on the smaller toes, not the larger ones. Claw toes can become a permanent condition if left untreated.

  • Hammer toe(s). When you wear tight, uncomfortable shoes too often, this can cause the toes to become permanently bent, or "propped" up at the joint. This condition is called a hammer toe.

  • Mallet toes. The opposite of hammer toes. Here, the toes dip downward at the joint, causing great discomfort when wearing shoes.

  • Tarsal coalition. When a child is still growing, some of their toes can fuse together, especially at the upper part of the toe, where the toe joins the rest of the foot. This condition needs to be addressed immediately to ensure the child is not permanently affected.

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Clubfoot. With a clubfoot, the muscles on one side of the foot are shorter than the other, causing the foot to turn sharply inward. This forces the patient to walk on the outside of the foot. A club foot deformity must be treated when the child is still an infant, to prevent permanent deformity.


Flatfeet (Pes planus). A flat foot has no arch at all. A flat foot is the most common structural deformity of the foot. It can be a congenital or acquired condition. Many persons who carry very heavy weights or become obese can suffer with a flat foot from all the pressure placed upon the arches. Injury to the posterior tibial tendon of the foot can also cause arches to fall and a flat foot condition to develop.

Foot Deformity Causes Overview

Foot deformities are acquired or congenital. Acquired foot disorders may arise because of wearing ill-fitting footwear, such as hammer toes and bunions, or because of gaining a lot of weight swiftly (bone spurs). Some conditions can be caused by injury as well. If you've broken one or several toes, for example, you are more likely than others to develop a condition such as hammer toe. With regard to congenital disorders like a club foot or fused toes, typically these are caused by simple genetics.

A.I. Health Assistant Causes for Foot Deformity

The list below shows results from the use of our A.I. Health Assistant by Buoy users who experienced foot deformity. This list does not constitute medical advice.

  1. 1.Hammer Toes (Contracted Toe)

    Hammer toe is a deformity of the second, third or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer. It most frequently results from wearing poorly fitted shoes that force the toe into a bent position.

    Without intervention, this condition is permanent.

    Top Symptoms:
    toe pain, hammer toe
    Symptoms that always occur with hammer toes (contracted toe):
    hammer toe
    Primary care doctor
  2. 2.Bunion

    A bunion is a deformity of the joint at the base of the big toe. Certain footwear styles can worsen bunions.

    Generally, better footwear & orthotics can slow the bunion's progression and alleviate symptoms.

    Top Symptoms:
    bump on outside edge of big toe, big toe pain, toe pain that gets worse when wearing closed-toe shoes, foot ulcer, pain at the base of the toe
    Symptoms that always occur with bunion:
    bump on outside edge of big toe
    Primary care doctor
  3. 3.Calcaneus Fracture

    The calcaneus (heel bone) can be fractured during high-energy collision, such as a fall from height or a motor vehicle crash. Heel bone fractures are often severe, and may result in long-term problems.

    6-8 weeks for the bone to completely heal (for an uncomplicated fracture).

    Top Symptoms:
    swollen ankle, swelling of both feet, severe foot pain, pain in both feet, swelling of one foot
    Symptoms that always occur with calcaneus fracture:
    inability to bear weight immediately after injury, foot pain from an injury, severe foot pain
    Hospital emergency room

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  4. 4.Broken Ankle

    An ankle fracture is a break in 1 or more ankle bones.

    Depending on the type of fracture, recovery may take up to a year.

    Top Symptoms:
    difficulty walking, constant ankle pain, swollen ankle, pain in one ankle, ankle pain from an injury
    Symptoms that always occur with broken ankle:
    pain in one ankle, swollen ankle, ankle pain from an injury, constant ankle pain
    Hospital emergency room
  5. 5.Pes Cavus

    Pes cavus is a high arch of the foot that does not flatten with weight bearing. This foot type can cause pain.

    Without surgical intervention, this condition is permanent.

    Top Symptoms:
    fatigue, foot numbness, high-arched feet, cold feet, leg weakness
    Symptoms that always occur with pes cavus:
    high-arched feet
    Primary care doctor
  6. 6.Flat Feet

    Pes planus, or flat feet, are a common and usually painless condition where the arches on the inside of the feet are flattened. Usually this is due to poor arch development during childhood.

    Lifelong condition not requiring treatment.

    Top Symptoms:
    pain in the top of the foot, pain in the middle of the foot
    Wait and watch

Foot Deformity Treatments and Relief

Foot deformities can be treated through bracing, casting, wearing supportive devices to correct the foot deformity, or surgery.

For more serious disorders, like fused toes, claw toes, or a clubfoot, surgery is necessary early in childhood to prevent permanent disability.

Some acquired conditions, like bunions, can be corrected through braces or plastic toe separators, that gradually, as one wears them while sleeping, separate the big toe from the second toe and back into its normal position. This will slowly correct the inward turning toe, which alleviates the protruding bone from rubbing against shoes.

Often for conditions like hammer toes, a podiatrist might recommend exercises such as picking up marbles with the toe or stretching the toes manually by hand several times a day or wearing straps and other foot devices that help correct the bent part of the toe.

In short, physical therapy in addition to wearing devices which help to correct the deformity are the basic courses of treatment for less serious foot deformities while surgery is required for conditions like a club foot or fused toes.

FAQs About Foot Deformity

Here are some frequently asked questions about foot deformity.

Can diabetes lead to to a foot deformity?

Yes, diabetes can lead to a deformity called a Charcot foot. This deformity comes from loss of the ability to sense feeling and pressure on the foot. To prevent deformity to the foot, it is necessary to seek a physician and adequate primary care to properly and adequately manage diagnosis your diabetes.

How can arthritis cause a foot deformity?

Arthritis causes a foot deformity through inflammation and eventually breakdown of the joints of the foot. There are different types of arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis breaks down joints and bone by causing inflammation to erode healthy bone. Osteoarthritis occurs with wear and tear over a lifetime, and after the outer layer of bone is eroded, this can cause a joint space to collapse — causing a deformity.

Does persistent wearing of high heels lead to a foot deformity?

Yes, persistent wearing of high heels — especially heels that are too tight — can lead to a splaying of the joint at the base of the big toe or the pinky toe. It is particularly aggravated by wearing narrow shoes or narrow high heels. It can also lead to formation of a bunion as the big toe is pressed inward and the weight of the body is forced onto the ball of the big toe.

Are all foot deformities painful?

No, all foot deformities are not painful. In fact, some foot deformities can be caused by a loss of sensation in the foot. Diabetic foot deformities, like a Charcot joint, are caused by loss of pressure sensation in the foot of a diabetic patient. While they can become painful later on from damage to the bone, they are often not painful early on.

Questions Your Doctor May Ask About Foot Deformity

  • Q.Are you having any difficulty walking?
  • Q.How would you describe your walk?
  • Q.Can you stand on both legs?

If you've answered yes to one or more of these questions, try our foot deformity symptom checker to find out more.

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Foot Deformity Symptom Checker Statistics

  • People who have experienced foot deformity have also experienced:

    • 3% Foot Numbness
    • 3% Foot Pain
    • 3% Fatigue
  • People who have experienced foot deformity were most often matched with:

    • 50% Calcaneus Fracture
    • 25% Hammer Toes (Contracted Toe)
    • 25% Bunion
  • Source: Aggregated and anonymized results from visits to the Buoy AI health assistant (check it out by clicking on “Take Quiz”).

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