Read below about gum swelling, including causes, treatment options and remedies. Or get a personalized analysis of your gum swelling from our A.I. health assistant. At Buoy, we build tools that help you know what’s wrong right now and how to get the right care.

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Gum Swelling Symptoms

You probably do not think about your gums on a daily basis. At best, they get a second look when you smile in the mirror. Just like the rest of the body, however, they can be prone to issues. The mouth stays active throughout the day, so gum swelling symptoms are quickly noticed, but how to cure them may not be so obvious. [7,8]

When we brush our teeth, the focus is often on keeping the teeth clean, but the gums are just as important to keep healthy. Gums help protect the mouth, and subsequently the body, from infection. Gum swelling symptoms could be a sign of gum issues and should not be ignored. [1,6]

Symptoms of gum swelling are:

  • Red gums. [1]
  • Bad breath. [9]
  • Bad taste in the mouth. [10]
  • Gum bleeding. [7]
  • Gums that are tender to the touch. [1]

Gums are soft tissue that line the mouth, providing a tight seal around the teeth. Their most important function is protecting the deeper tissue in the mouth from a wide range of periodontal issues. [1,6]

Gum Swelling Causes

There are only a few significant causes of gum swelling, but they are all notable. Sometimes a specific event is readily attributed to the swelling or maybe it was suddenly noticeable one morning. [1]

Environmental causes:

  • Trauma: Significant impact to the mouth can result in gum swelling symptoms and bleeding. [2]
  • Diet: A poor diet and malnutrition could result in swollen gums. Scurvy occurs from a severe deficiency of vitamin C. [3]
  • Oral Products: Gum swelling may be a product of what goes in the mouth. For example, poorly fitting dentures, reactions to toothpaste/mouthwash, and certain medicinal side effects. [1,4]
  • Hormonal: Increased blood flow to the gums from hormonal changes can cause them to swell. This condition often occurs during pregnancy. [5]
  • Oral Hygiene: Not taking care of your mouth through brushing, flossing, and professional cleaning can lead to swelling. [3]

Inflammatory causes:

  • Infections: Bacterial infections and ulcers in the gums often lead to swelling. The most common inflammatory infection is gingivitis. [1]
  • Autoimmune: Autoimmune disorders cause dysfunction of the body in a variety of ways. For the gums, swelling can result from conditions related to dry mouth. [6]

5 Possible Conditions

The list below shows results from the use of our quiz by Buoy users who experienced gum swelling. This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.

  1. 1.Gingivitis

    Gingivitis is the infection of the gums surrounding the teeth. It is caused by plaque and/or tartar that has built up on your teeth. Plaque is a sticky layer of gunk made by food particles, mucus, and bacteria. After a while, plaque hardens to become tartar (or calculus). Plaque and tartar at the bottom of the teeth causes the gums to become irritated and infected.

    Great, with dental care and improvement in dental hygiene

    Top Symptoms:
    bleeding gums, gum pain, gum swelling, gum redness
    Primary care doctor
  2. 2.Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (Anug)

    Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) is a relatively rare infection of the gums. It's also known as "trench mouth", as it was discovered in a large number of soldiers in WWI that were stuck in trenches. The pain caused by ANUG is what makes it different from chronic periodontitis, and it requires treatment by professionals.

    Good prognosis with treatment. Without treatment, ANUG can become recurrent and chronic.

    Top Symptoms:
    bleeding gums, gum pain, chronically bad breath, severe mouth pain, gum swelling
    In-person visit

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  3. 3.Oral Herpes

    Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes fever and red and inflamed gums. This typically happens early in childhood.

    1-2 weeks but recurrent

    Top Symptoms:
    fever, gum pain, painful mouth sore, gum swelling, gum redness
    Symptoms that always occur with oral herpes:
    gum pain
  4. 4.Blood Issue That Needs Further Testing

    Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. Sometimes, the bone marrow produces abnormal cells. These cells can crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work.

    Dependent on the tests

    Top Symptoms:
    fatigue, nausea, shortness of breath, muscle aches, fever
    In-person visit
  5. 5.Melanoma of the Mouth

    Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN) is a rare cancer that is approximately 10% of melanomas arising in the head and neck and approximately 1% of all malignant melanomas. It is more common in an elderly population and has a poor prognosis.


    Ultra rare
    Top Symptoms:
    gum pain, gum swelling, brown-colored skin changes, black-colored skin changes, mouth rash resembling an amalgam tattoo
    Primary care doctor

Gum Swelling Treatments, Relief and Prevention

While the gum swelling is always worth monitoring, the majority of cases can be, at least initially, dealt with before seeing a doctor or dentist is necessary. [11]

That being said, it is recommended to contact a medical professional if any of the following are true:

  • Gums are both swollen and red (particularly if a routine professional cleaning has not occurred within the last six months). [12]
  • Swelling has lasted longer than two weeks. [11]
  • If you recently started new medications. [12]
  • Significant trauma has occurred. [10]

Environmental gum swelling causes can often be treated through practical and safe measures performed at home. Basic gum care is easy to do, and gum tissue often responds well to good oral hygiene habits. [11] If symptoms do not recede or get progressively worse, however, professional intervention may be required. Common treatments for gum swelling are as follows: [12]

At-home treatments:

  • Lifestyle: Changes in diet can help reduce swelling caused by a variety of factors. [3] Switching toothpastes or mouthwash may provide immediate relief, as well as ensuring the body receives the proper amount of nutrients. [1,4] Alcohol and tobacco are also known gum irritants. [4,11]
  • Oral Hygiene: Keeping the mouth and gums clean is the best way to reduce swelling and prevent it in the future. Brushing and flossing regularly may be all that is necessary. Rinsing the mouth with salt water or hydrogen peroxide mixtures may also be recommended. [2]
  • Ice: Trauma-related inflammation can be reduced by using cold compresses on the cheek outside of the affected area. [13]

Professional treatments:

  • Cleaning: Professional teeth cleaning will supplement at-home care, removing plaque, and reducing/preventing gum swelling. A clean mouth is a happy mouth. Regular brushing and flossing not only feels good but can also reduce gum swelling and prevent it in the future. Your dentist is your best resource when evaluating treatment options for gum swelling. If typical care is not enough, he/she may have recommendations for particular toothpaste, devices to remove plaque deposits or professional treatment measures. [12]

Questions Your Doctor May Ask About Gum Swelling

  • Q.What part of your mouth is swollen?
  • Q.Do you have a rash?
  • Q.Does your throat feel itchy or irritated?
  • Q.Does your breath smell worse than usual?

If you've answered yes to one or more of these questions, try our gum swelling symptom checker to find out more.

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Gum Swelling Symptom Checker Statistics

  • People who have experienced gum swelling have also experienced:

    • 11% Gum Pain
    • 6% Toothache
    • 3% Swollen Face
  • People who have experienced gum swelling had symptoms persist for:

    • 41% Less Than a Day
    • 38% Less Than a Week
    • 10% Over a Month
  • People who have experienced gum swelling were most often matched with:

    • 55% Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (Anug)
    • 33% Gingivitis
    • 11% Oral Herpes
  • Source: Aggregated and anonymized results from visits to the Buoy AI health assistant (check it out by clicking on “Take Quiz”).

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  1. Blahd Jr WH, Husney A, Pope J, Romito K, eds. Toothache and Gum Problems: Topic Overview. University of Michigan: Michigan Medicine. Updated September 23, 2018. UofM Health Link.
  2. Inflamed or Irritated Gum Tissue. Indiana State Department of Health. IN State Department of Health Link.
  3. Gum Disease: Causes. NHS. Updated Apirl 2, 2016. NHS Link.
  4. Gums - Swollen. Nicklaus Children's Hospital. Nicklaus Children's Hospital Link.
  5. Women and Oral Health: Menstruation. American Dental Association. Published August 2016. ADA Link.
  6. Dry Mouth: A Greater Risk When You Have Arthritis. Arthritis Foundation. Arthritis Foundation Link.
  7. Dispelling Myths About Gum Disease: The Truth Behind Healthy Teeth and Gums. American Academy of Periodontology. Published February 18, 2010. AAP Link.
  8. Gersten T, Stump-Sutliff K, eds. Oral Cancer: Frequently Asked Questions. University of Rochester Medical Center. URMC Link.
  9. Gum Disease. NHS. Updated April 2, 2016. NHS Link.
  10. Dental Abscess. NHS. Updated March 23, 2016. NHS Link.
  11. Blahd Jr WH, Husney A, Pope J, Romito K, eds. Toothache and Gum Problems: Home Treatment. University of Michigan: Michigan Medicine. Updated September 23, 2018. UofM Health Link.
  12. Blahd Jr WH, Husney A, Pope J, Romito K, eds. Toothache and Gum Problems: Prevention. University of Michigan: Michigan Medicine. Updated September 23, 2018. UofM Health Link.
  13. Sprains, Strains and Bruises. St John. St John Link.