Read below about toothache, including causes, treatment options and remedies. Or get a personalized analysis of your toothache from our A.I. health assistant. At Buoy, we build tools that help you know what’s wrong right now and how to get the right care.

A.I. Health Assistant

Take a quiz to find out why you’re having toothache

Take a quiz

Toothache Symptoms

tooth pain is an unwelcome surprise after gulping down a nice cold drink or chomping on some corn on the cob. Whether it's a nagging, dull ache or a sharp jolt that makes you jump, tooth pain can be cause for concern.

Good dental hygiene (including, yes, flossing) and regular visits to the dentist go a long way in preventing tooth pain, but even the pearliest whites aren't immune. Dental problems grow more common with age yet can begin in childhood, long before adult teeth come in.

Tooth pain may seem unimportant, but it can be a warning sign of worse things to come. Teeth and gums help shield the body from infection, and when they break a down, the body loses this natural defense.

Common symptoms are:

Toothache Causes Overview

That irritating toothache is often a sign of decay caused by a buildup of bacteria in the mouth. What starts as colorless sticky film called plaque can quickly progress to hardened yellow or brown deposits called tartar. Without proper dental hygiene, the bacteria can cause erosions in teeth and infections in the surrounding area.

Infectious causes:

  • Tooth decay: Acid produced by bacteria in the mouth can break down the hard tissues of the teeth.
  • Inflammation of the gums: Swollen gums can be quite uncomfortable and are a sign of bacteria buildup in the mouth.
  • Abscess: An infection that has been brewing for some time can produce a pocket of pus in teeth or surrounding tissues.

Mechanical causes:

  • Third molars: While some people are able to keep these "wisdom teeth," there's often not enough room in the mouth and overcrowding can cause pain.
  • Teeth grinding : This can occur during the day or at night while sleeping and can irritate the nerves in the teeth and other areas.
  • Dental work: Teeth can be especially sensitive after a visit to the dentist for a filling or crown.
  • Jaw joint inflammation: Problems with the jaw joint and muscles may cause pain that feels like it is coming from your teeth.
  • Trauma: A cracked tooth is not only painful and unsightly but can also increase the chance of infection.
  • Teething : In children, the eruption of baby teeth and later adult teeth commonly cause discomfort.

Other causes:

  • Poor diet: Eating lots of sugary snacks and drinks feeds bacteria in the mouth and can lead to painful infections and other problems.
  • Poor dental hygiene: Regular brushing and flossing helps keep dental problems at bay and can prevent toothaches.

7 Potential Toothache Causes

Disclaimer: The article does not replace an evaluation by a physician. Information on this page is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes.

  1. 1.Temporomandibular Joint (Tmj) Dysfunction Disorder

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is located in front of the ear, and it connects the jaw to the side of the head. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a painful condition which can be caused by excess tension in jaw mucles, faulty alignment between upper and lower teeth, arthritis in the joint, or injury of the jaw or face.

    Outcome is highly case-dependent.

    Rarity:
    Common
    Top Symptoms:
    dizziness, pain, restricted movement, and clicking sounds from jaw, history of headaches, jaw pain, pain in the back of the neck
    Symptoms that always occur with temporomandibular joint (tmj) dysfunction disorder:
    pain, restricted movement, and clicking sounds from jaw
    Urgency:
    Primary care doctor
  2. 2.Tooth Subluxation (Loose Tooth)

    For any loose tooth, the most important thing is to keep it in the socket until you can see a dentist. The gums sometimes only need a soft diet for a couple of weeks to repair around the tooth.

    Good prognosis with dental follow-up. Root canals are always possible because the blood to the tooth could have been affected.

    Rarity:
    Common
    Top Symptoms:
    toothache, tooth loosening injury
    Symptoms that always occur with tooth subluxation (loose tooth):
    tooth loosening injury
    Urgency:
    Primary care doctor
  3. 3.Dental Cavity

    Dental cavities are bacterial infections of the tooth. The bacteria produce acid that breaks down the tooth.

    1 day with proper treatment

    Rarity:
    Common
    Top Symptoms:
    dry mouth, toothache, tooth pain that makes chewing difficult, pain in the top row of teeth, tooth pain that gets worse with hot, cold, or sweet beverages
    Symptoms that never occur with dental cavity:
    spontanenous tooth pain
    Urgency:
    Primary care doctor

    Toothache Checker

    Take a quiz to find out why you’re having toothache.

    Take a quiz
  4. 4.Severe Cavity

    Dental cavity requiring a root canal or tooth extraction.

    Resolves with treatment

    Rarity:
    Uncommon
    Top Symptoms:
    dry mouth, toothache, spontanenous tooth pain, tooth pain that makes chewing difficult
    Symptoms that always occur with severe cavity:
    spontanenous tooth pain
    Urgency:
    Primary care doctor
  5. 5.Complicated Tooth Fracture (Broken Tooth)

    A "complicated tooth fracture" (or broken tooth) is defined as damage to the tooth that is causing bleeding from the tooth itself. If the tooth is bleeding, that means that the "pulp" is exposed, which is extremely painful and requires immediate treatment.

    The tooth might end up dying even with treatment.

    Rarity:
    Uncommon
    Top Symptoms:
    toothache
    Symptoms that always occur with complicated tooth fracture (broken tooth):
    tooth chipping injury, bleeding tooth fracture
    Urgency:
    Hospital emergency room
  6. 6.Chipped Tooth (Uncomplicated Tooth Fracture)

    An "uncomplicated tooth fracture" (or chipped tooth) is defined as damage to the tooth without bleeding from the tooth itself. If the tooth is bleeding, that means that the "pulp" is exposed, which is extremely painful and requires immediate treatment.

    Great prognosis. However, you should see a dentist as soon as possible.

    Rarity:
    Uncommon
    Top Symptoms:
    toothache, tooth chipping injury
    Symptoms that always occur with chipped tooth (uncomplicated tooth fracture):
    tooth chipping injury
    Symptoms that never occur with chipped tooth (uncomplicated tooth fracture):
    bleeding tooth fracture
    Urgency:
    Primary care doctor
  7. 7.Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    This is a condition where the jaw bone is exposed (this happens if it is not covered by gums). To be called osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), this condition must persist for at least 8 weeks. This disease is common among people taking medications called bisphosphonates or RANKL inhibitors.

    Resolves within months with conservative treatment.

    Rarity:
    Rare
    Top Symptoms:
    jaw pain, jaw lump, toothache, swollen jaw, heavy jaw
    Symptoms that always occur with osteonecrosis of the jaw:
    jaw pain
    Urgency:
    Primary care doctor

Toothache Treatments and Relief

By the time tooth pain hits, there's usually an underlying problem that requires a thorough examination by a dentist. So, it's best to address the problem before it happens in the first place.

Preventive treatments:

  • Brushing: Most people rush this basic part of dental hygiene. Be sure to clean all surfaces of your teeth with fluoride toothpaste and gentle back and forth motions for at least two minutes. Change your toothbrush at least every three months.
  • Flossing: There's a reason the dentist always asks about this important step. Cleaning the space between teeth and gums once a day removes bacteria and prevents infection and inflammation.
  • Fluoride rinse: These over-the-counter solutions are a popular supplement to the fluoride already found in toothpaste.
  • Antibacterial mouthwash: These rinses, which typically contain alcohol or chlorhexidine, reduce the amount of bacteria in the mouth.

After a toothache develops and before you make it to the dentist, there are a few remedies that can help relieve the pain.

  • Numbing gels: Products containing benzocaine, such as Orajel, are applied directly to an area of discomfort and can make it easier to eat or drink with a toothache.
  • Painkillers: Advil, Motrin or other products with ibuprofen are effective for treatment of dental pain. Tylenol is a good alternative and can be alternated with ibuprofen for even stronger pain relief.
  • Clove oil: A few drops of this natural remedy can be applied directly to the painful area in the mouth.
  • Salt rinse: A combination of salt dissolved in warm water can help fight the underlying cause of the pain.

Once you get to the dentist's office, there are a few things that may help relieve your tooth pain:

  • Filling: If the tooth has begun to decay, the dentist will replace the decay with a solid material so that bacteria do not continue to spread.
  • Root canal: If an infection has reached the center part of the tooth made up of living tissue, the dentist will clean this area out.
  • Crown: This is a cap placed over a damaged tooth to prevent spread of decay or infection.

It's important to see a dentist right away if you have:

  • Toothache that is very severe or does not improve with medication
  • Fever with dental pain
  • Problems eating, swallowing or breathing
  • Loose adult tooth
  • A fractured or knocked-out tooth

FAQs About Toothache

Here are some frequently asked questions about toothache.

What causes toothache?

Toothache is most often caused by tooth decay or cavity. The inside of your tooth, called the pulp, contains nerves and blood vessels that can become irritated and cause the sensation of a toothache. Nerves can be irritated by factors like bacterial toxins, chemicals, trauma, and even inflammatory chemicals produced by your own body in response to an infection.

Do I have a cavity?

Cavities are best diagnosed by your dentist, who can probe your teeth to look for soft spots indicating decay, or use X-rays to look between your teeth. Tooth decay occurs because of breakdown of enamel by acid-generating bacteria, and, if untreated, can progress to cavities. Signs that you may have a cavity include tooth pain after eating or drinking something sweet or hot/cold and visible cavitated lesions.

Can cavities cause jaw pain?

If a cavity has been left untreated for an extended period of time, bacteria can invade the area and begin to spread to adjacent bony tissues, causing significant jaw pain. Jaw pain does not necessarily indicate a tooth cavity, however. One common source of jaw pain that is often incorrectly thought to be related to tooth pathology is temporomandibular disorder.

What causes toothaches at night?

There are several reasons why toothaches can occur or become worse at night. One major reason is that lying flat causes increased blood flow to the head, causing increased pressure on sensitive areas of your teeth. Another reason is that food may still be lodged in between your teeth from your last meal and may cause irritation to the surrounding area. Finally, teeth grinding at night may also cause pain.

Why does toothache cause radiating pain in the sinuses?

The roots and nerves of your top back teeth lie very closely to the maxillary sinuses, which are two large, air-filled spaces under the eyes and adjacent to your nose. As a result, buildup of fluid in the maxillary sinus secondary to inflammation of the sinuses can cause increased pressure and pain to the teeth. Similarly, infection of the upper teeth can cause pain that seems to be stemming from the sinuses.

Questions Your Doctor May Ask About Toothache

  • Q.Any fever today or during the last week?
  • Q.Were you hit or injured anywhere on your face? If so, where?
  • Q.Has your dentist or significant other ever told you that you grind your teeth in your sleep?
  • Q.Do you have a runny nose?

If you've answered yes to one or more of these questions, try our toothache symptom checker to find out more.

Take a quiz

Toothache Symptom Checker Statistics

  • People who have experienced toothache have also experienced:

    • 8% Headache
    • 4% Swollen Face
    • 3% Gum Pain
  • People who have experienced toothache had symptoms persist for:

    • 40% Less Than a Week
    • 33% Less Than a Day
    • 11% Over a Month
  • People who have experienced toothache were most often matched with:

    • 33% Temporomandibular Joint (Tmj) Dysfunction Disorder
    • 29% Dental Cavity
  • Source: Aggregated and anonymized results from visits to the Buoy AI health assistant (check it out by clicking on “Take Quiz”).

A.I. Health Assistant

Take a quiz to find out why you’re having toothache

Take a quiz