A bruised eye is a common symptom resulting from trauma from a direct injury to the face, or surgery. Read below for more information on causes, how long a black eye will last, and treatment options.
Symptoms of a bruised eye
Aside from being unsightly and hard to ignore, a bruised eye can be painful and possibly affect vision. Our eyes and the structure around them are sensitive and easily damaged by trauma. Our vision is reliant on our eyes' health, so it is important to care for the bruised eye and prevent any long-term side effects.
The more common term for a bruised eye is "black eye," and the medical term is ecchymosis. Black eyes can arrive quickly and, sometimes, simply disappear over time. Understanding the symptoms will be important in determining if there are more significant implications.
Common symptoms of a bruised eye are:
- Bruising (black and blue discoloration)
- Decreased vision
- Blurry or double vision
- Bleeding or discharge in or around the eye
- Redness in the eye
- Light sensitivity
- Seeing flashing lights when none are present
- Pain in the eye or the surrounding bones
The proper function of the eye relies on many components. Tissue and bones surround and protect the eye. Some of these bones are thick, while others are delicate and thin. Bruised eye symptoms are the result of damage to one or more of these components.
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Causes of a bruised eye
A bruised eye is likely the result of a traumatic event that causes bleeding and discoloration around the eye. Often times, a bruised eye is caused by damage to the tissue surrounding the eye, but trauma to the bones can have a similar effect. Most of us think about bruised eyes in the context of a post-fight injury or other traumatic event, however, the vast majority of bruised eyes occur through accidental impact.
The tissues surrounding the eye, and the eye itself, are soft and easily damaged. The eye socket surrounding the eye is made of thick bones that require significant trauma for an injury. Conversely, the bones on the nose side of the eye are extremely thin and can be damaged by minor traumatic events.
Common causes of a bruised eye include:
- Trauma (Tissue): Either from a physical altercation, athletic event, or an accident around the house, impact to the eye and surrounding region from a traumatic event is the most common cause of a bruised eye.
- Surgery: Procedures performed on the face may result in damage to the tissue around the eye and cause bruised eye symptoms.
This list does not constitute medical advice and may not accurately represent what you have.
Uncomplicated black eye
Black eyes are usually nothing more than a bruise around the eye without any complications, as is likely in this case. However, all black eyes need to be examined by a doctor to rule out facial fracture, damage to the nerves around the eye, and other possible injuries to the eye itself.
Top Symptoms: swelling of the eye area, bruised eye, constant eye bruise, eye pain from an injury
Symptoms that always occur with uncomplicated black eye: bruised eye, eye pain from an injury, constant eye bruise
Symptoms that never occur with uncomplicated black eye: double vision
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Eye-socket (orbital) fracture
The middle part of the face or around the eye is fragile. A strong force hitting the area can cause a fracture, which can often hurt the surrounding soft tissue, making it an emergency to diagnose and treat.
Top Symptoms: swelling of the eye area, recent eye injury, eye pain from an injury, bruised eye, recent injury from a fall
Symptoms that always occur with eye-socket (orbital) fracture: eye pain from an injury, recent eye injury
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain.
Top Symptoms: new headache, irritability, clear runny nose, vision changes, general numbness
Symptoms that always occur with traumatic brain injury: head injury
Urgency: Emergency medical service
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Bruised eye treatments and relief
Depending on the extent of the traumatic event, a bruised eye can often be cared for at home and will remedy itself over several weeks. As with most common bruises, it is not always necessary to contact your doctor. Other factors surrounding the injury, however, may warrant a phone call to your medical professional.
These factors include:
- Pain/discoloration that continues for longer than two weeks.
- Significant pain that does not subside.
- Direct damage to or a foreign object found in the eyeball.
- Eyeball is red and painful.
- Headaches or nausea
- Changes in vision.
- Bleeding that cannot be stopped.
Common cases of bruised eyes from a minor injury can be managed at home through several steps. If the bruised eye is part of a larger health issue, medical professionals will determine advanced treatment.
- Ice/Heat Compression: The key to treating a black eye is to minimize swelling and encourage blood flow. This is accomplished by compressing the bruised eye with both cold and warm treatments for the first 24 hours.
- Elevation: The head should remain elevated, at least initially, to reduce swelling and minimize damage.
- Surgery: Damage to the eyeball itself or fractures to the bones surrounding the eye may require surgical procedures to repair. Medical professionals will recommend the proper course of action.
Sometimes it is surprising how often we put our eyes in harm's way. Whether from an intentional act or by mistake, bruised eye symptoms are, unfortunately, common. The good news is that, aside from spending some time with an unsightly bruise, long-term effects are usually minimal. Bruising may get worse, spreading to the cheek or the other eye, before it gets better, but proper treatments will help relieve bruised eye symptoms and return the area to its normal appearance.
Questions your doctor may ask about bruised eye
- Did you get hit in the head?
- Have you noticed any vision changes?
- Were you hit or injured anywhere on your face? If so, where?
- Did you faint?
Self-diagnose with our free Buoy Assistant if you answer yes on any of these questions.
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