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Learn about your toenail pain, including causes, treatment options and remedies. Or get a personalized analysis of your toenail pain from our A.I. health assistant. At Buoy, we build tools that help you know what’s wrong right now and how to get the right care.

Toenail Pain Checker

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Your Toenail Pain May Also be Known as:
Aches and pains in toe nail
Aches and pains in toe nails
Aches and pains in toenail
He hurt his toe nail
He hurt his toe nails
He hurt his toenail
Hurt her toe nail
Hurt her toe nails
Hurt her toenail
Hurt his toe nail

Toenail Pain Symptoms

Certain conditions can cause mild to severe pain under and around a toenail. The pain can make it difficult to put on shoes and walk around. Often the nail fold, meaning the skin just around the toenail, is involved as well. Luckily, many causes of toenail pain can be easily treated and then prevented from recurring.

Symptoms that can be associated with toenail pain include:

  • Drainage
  • Swelling
  • Redness of surrounding skin
  • Toenail thickening
  • Toenail crumbling
  • Yellow toenail
  • Red/black toenail
  • Separation of the toenail from the toe
  • Unpleasant smell

Toenail Pain Causes Overview

Ingrown toenail:

  • When a toenail grows back after being cut, the edge can grow into the surrounding skin. This results in pain, swelling, and redness. Sometimes the injury to the nail fold will lead to infection and chronic inflammation.

Infectious causes:

  • Bacterial infection : An acute or chronic bacterial infection of the nail fold can cause pain, redness, and swelling, along with pus visible under the skin right next to the toenail.
  • Fungal infection : An infection of one or more toenails by fungus is a common condition (onychomycosis). The affected toenails will be thick and yellow in color and may start to crumble. In severe cases, the toenails will also become painful. It can be difficult to completely get rid of a fungal toenail infection.

Trauma-related causes:

  • Foreign body : A sharp object, such as a wooden splinter, can become wedged under a toenail and cause severe toenail pain.
  • Bleeding under the toenail : Trauma to the toenail can result in blood collecting beneath the nail, creating a red/black color. Increased pressure beneath the toenail caused by the blood can be very painful.
  • Other injury : The toe can be cut or crushed by an object, leading to a painful injury involving the toenail. Some or all of the toenail may get ripped off from the toe.

Tumor-related causes:

  • Multiple types of benign tumors can form underneath the toenail, causing pain and separation of the toenail from the toe.

Systemic disease causes:

  • Some chronic diseases can affect the skin and toenails, causing pain and changes in the structure of the nails. These include sarcoidosis and psoriasis.
  • Other systemic diseases, particularly those that cause decreased functioning of the immune system, can cause a predisposition to painful toenail problems such fungal infection.

Top 2 Toenail Pain Causes

  1. 1.Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    Paronychia is an infection of the nail folds, typically caused by Staph. Aureus. Or a fungus.

    You should go see a retail or urgent care clinic in the next day or so. You can treat this with an antibiotic such as clindamycin or bactrim.

    Rarity:
    Rare
    Top Symptoms:
    spontaneous toe pain, toenail pain, toenail swelling
    Urgency:
    Phone call or in-person visit

    Toenail Pain Checker

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  2. 2.Ingrown Toenail

    Ingrown toenails are a common condition. This occurs when the nail grows into the soft skin of the toe, causing pain, redness, swelling, and in rare cases, infection.

    You can safely treat this condition at home. Soak the foot for 15 to 20 minutes at least three times a day. After the soak, place cotton or dental floss under the nail to guide it to grow above rather than into the skin. If infection is suspected, an over the counter antibiotic cream should be applied.

    Rarity:
    Uncommon
    Top Symptoms:
    toe pain, big toe pain, toenail pain, swollen toes, swelling of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th or 5th toe
    Symptoms that always occur with ingrown toenail:
    ingrown nail, toe pain
    Symptoms that never occur with ingrown toenail:
    pain between the 2nd and 3rd toe, pain in both feet, pain in the front half of the foot, heel pain, pain in the middle of the foot, foot pain that shoots to the toes, pain in one foot, pain in the outside of the foot
    Urgency:
    Self-treatment

Toenail Pain Treatments and Relief

Most causes of toenail pain do not need require urgent treatment. However, some types of injuries should be evaluated quickly.

Seek immediate treatment if:

  • A foreign body has been wedged under the toenail, particularly a wooden splinter or other type of plant material like a thorn. These objects should be removed as quickly as possible to avoid severe infection and inflammation.
  • An injury has caused part or all of the toenail to come off of the toe.

In some cases, even though emergency toenail pain treatment isn't necessary, you should still seek medical evaluation.

Make an appointment with your medical provider if:

  • You have diabetes, in which case any foot infection can become severe.
  • You have any chronic medical condition that has affected your skin in the past, such as psoriasis.
  • You have redness and warmth surrounding the toe.
  • You notice pus draining from the toenail and surrounding skin.
  • Your pain is associated with a growth underneath the toenail.
  • Your toenails have thickened and changed in color.

Your medical provider may prescribe one or more of the following toenail pain treatments, depending on the cause of the toenail pain:

  • A splint to help separate an ingrown toenail from the surrounding skin.
  • Surgical removal of part or all of the toenail.
  • Drainage of infected fluid.
  • Oral antifungal or antibacterial medication.
  • Antibiotic cream.
  • Treatment for an underlying medical condition that is affecting the toenails.
  • A tetanus shot may be necessary if a foreign body such as a splinter is responsible for the pain.

Some home treatments may help with toenail pain symptoms.

  • Soak the toe in warm water.
  • Wedge a small piece of cotton or dental floss underneath the edge of an ingrown toenail.
  • Trim toenails regularly. Cut them straight across on top and do not attempt to trim around the edges.
  • Wear shoes that are the correct size (your toes should have a little bit of wiggle room).

FAQs About Toenail Pain

Here are some frequently asked questions about toenail pain.

Why do I keep getting a painful ingrown toenail?

Ingrown toenails are often caused by cutting the nails incorrectly. Make sure to cut toenails straight across the top and avoid rounding the edges. Ingrown toenails are also more likely to occur in the setting of sweaty feet and wearing shoes that are too small. Athletes may get ingrown toenails due to repetitive trauma from the toes hitting the front of the shoe.

Can toenail pain be caused by an infection?

Yes, a bacterial infection of the skin surrounding the toenail can be very painful. In this case there will be redness and swelling around the toenail, as well as pus visible beneath the skin and possibly drainage. The infection often starts due to an ingrown toenail. A severe fungal infection of the toenail can also be painful.

Can painful toenail conditions be caused by chronic medical problems?

Certain chronic medical conditions can cause abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails along with pain. For example, psoriasis is an inflammatory skin condition that can cause thickening, pitting, and separation of the nails. Chronic conditions that cause decreased blood supply to the feet, such as peripheral arterial disease and diabetes, can make the toenails more vulnerable to injury and infection.

What should I do if I have toenail pain because of a splinter?

A splinter or any other object wedged beneath the toenail can be extremely painful. It is important to get treatment quickly to remove any type of vegetation, such as a wooden splinter or cactus spine. These objects can cause severe inflammation and infection. A medical provider may cut a triangle shape out of the nail in order to completely remove the splinter.

Why is my painful toenail changing color?

There are a couple of conditions that can cause both toenail pain and color changes. A fungal infection can cause the toenail to turn a yellow/brown color, and can be painful. One type of bacteria that causes infection of the toenail and surrounding skin, called pseudomonas, can cause part of the toenail to turn a greenish color. In addition, a collection of blood under the toenail caused by trauma can make part or all of the toenail appear red or black in color.

Questions Your Doctor May Ask About Toenail Pain

  • Q.Is your foot pain getting better or worse?
  • Q.How severe is your foot pain?
  • Q.Do you have a rash?
  • Q.Is the pain affecting:

If you've answered yes to one or more of these questions, check our toenail pain symptom checker.

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Toenail Pain Symptom Checker Statistics

  • People who have experienced toenail pain have also experienced:

    • 4% Fatigue
    • 3% Joint Pain
    • 3% Headache
  • People who have experienced toenail pain had symptoms persist for:

    • 39% Over a Month
    • 22% Less Than a Week
    • 20% Less Than a Day
  • People who have experienced toenail pain were most often matched with:

    • 3% Nail Infection (Paronychia)
  • Source: Aggregated and anonymized results from visits to the Buoy AI health assistant (check it out by clicking on “Take Quiz”).

Toenail Pain Checker

Take a quiz to find out why you’re having toenail pain.

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